- 1 Cable colors - help for correct connection
- 2 Wire Colors
- 3 The colors of the wires in the electrical 3 main points of contacts
Cable colors - help for correct connection
Working with electricity can be seen that the wire strands are painted in different colors. It is interesting, but the colors are never the same regardless of the number of conductors in one sheath. Why is this done and how not to get lost in a variety of colors - this is our today's article.
The essence of the color-coded wires
Working with electricity - a serious matter, because there is a risk of electric shock. The common man is not so easy to cope with connecting wires, because by cutting the cable, you can see that the wires have different colors. Such an approach is not the notion of producers with the aim to differentiate their products from the competition, and is very important when installing wiring. To avoid confusion with the cable cores color, the diversity of colors is reduced to the same standard - SAE. Electrical Installation Regulations state that the conductor wires must be differentiated by color or alphanumeric characters.
Color coding allows you to define the purpose of each wire, which is extremely important when switching. Proper compound lived between themselves and the installation of wiring accessories, avoids the serious consequences such as short-circuiting, electric shock, fire, or at all. Properly connected the wires subsequently help to repair and maintenance without problems.
insulating tape of different colors can be used for marking wires
According to the rules of color colors of the wire is present along the entire length. However, in reality it can be found electrical wires, painted the same color. Most often this occurs in the old housing stock, which laid the aluminum wiring. To solve the problems of color designation of each individual core is used heat shrink tubing or insulating tape of different colors:. Black, blue, yellow, brown, red, etc. Multi-colored markings make connection points in wires and lived at the ends.
Before talking about the color difference, it is worth mentioning about the designation of wires letters and numbers. Phase conductor in single-phase AC power is indicated by the Latin letter "L" (Line). The three-phase circuit of phase 1, 2 and 3 will be respectively denote "L1", "L2", "L3". Grounding phase conductor is abbreviated "LE" in the single-phase network and "LE1", "LE2", "LE3" in three-phase. Neutral conductor is assigned the letter "N" (Neutral). Zero or protective conductor denoted "PE" (Protect Earth).
Color coding of the ground wire
According to the rules of use of electrical equipment, all of it must be connected to the network, in which there is a ground wire. It was in this situation in the technique will extend the manufacturer's warranty. According SEP protection is yellow-green shell, wherein the color bands should be strictly vertical. In another arrangement of such products is considered to be non-standard. can be found often in the veins of the cable sheath with a bright yellow or green in color. In this case it is their use as a ground.
Interesting! Hard solid grounding wire colored green with a thin yellow band, but in the soft stranded Conversely, as the main uses yellow, green and additional acts.
Some countries allow the installation of protective conductor, without a shell, but if you met a cable green-yellow with a blue shield and the designation of the PEN, the ground in front of you, combined with neutral. You should know that the earth will never be connected to the protective devices located in the control panel. The ground wire is connected to the ground bus, to the housing or the metal access door raspredschitka.
The diagrams can be seen different designation ground, so to avoid confusion, we recommend that you use the memo mentioned below:
Color-coded wire insulation
A separate color for the neutral wire and a variety of color phase
As evidenced by the SAE for the neutral wire, which is more commonly referred to as zero, allocated only color designation. So color is blue, and it can be bright or dark blue and even execution - all depends on the manufacturer's. Even on color schemes, this wire is always drawn in blue. In raspredschitke neutral connected to the neutral bus, which is connected directly to the counter instead of using the machine.
Colors phase conductors according to GOST
According to GOST, the phase wiring colors can be any color except blue, yellow and green, as these colors are zero and the ground. This approach helps to distinguish the phase wire from the rest, because it is the most dangerous in operation. According to it, the current passes, so it is extremely important to ensure proper identification in order to work safely. Most often, the phase conductors in the cable are designated trohzhilnom black or red. PUE does not prohibit the use of other colors except the color intended for ground zero and, therefore, can sometimes be found in the following phase conductor membranes:
We have given the basic rules of marking L, N, PE lived in electrics by color, but it often happens that not all the master observe Wiring rules. Among other things, there is a possibility that the electric wires swapped with different color phase conductors or even a one-color cable. How not to make a mistake in this situation and make the correct designation of zero phase and earth? The best option in this case would be the wires in accordance with their intended purpose. It is necessary to use the tubing (shrink tubing) denote all elements that extend from the electrical panel and to follow the housing. The work can take a long time, but it's worth it.
To work to identify accessories lived using a screwdriver indicator - is the easiest tool to use that for the subsequent phases of marking elementary. Take the appliance and the metal tip touch a naked (!) Wires. on the screwdriver indicator lights only when you find a live wire. If the cable is a two-core, the more questions should not be, because the second conductor - zero.
Important! In any electrical cables are always the L and N conductors, irrespective of the number of wires inside.
If a three-core wire is investigated, to locate the grounding and neutral conductors used multimer. As is known, in the neutral conductor is possible to have electricity, but the dose will barely exceed 30V. To measure on the multimer must configure the measurement of AC voltage mode. Thereafter a probe is touched to the phase conductor which has been determined by means of a screwdriver indicator, and the second - the remaining. Conductor, which showed the lowest value on the instrument, will be zero.
The meter is used to determine the voltage, if the wires are reversed
If it turned out that the tension in the other wires the same, you must use the method of measuring the resistance that will determine land. Only core will be used for work, the purpose of which is unknown - the phase wire in the test is not involved. Multimer is switched to the resistance measuring mode, after which a probe relate obviously to the grounded element and purified metal (which may be, e.g., a radiator), and the second - to veins. Land should not exceed 4 ohms reading, while at the neutral value will be higher.
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Anyone who has ever had to deal with wires and electrical noticed that conductors always have a different color of the insulation. This is done for a reason. The colors of the wires in the electrical engineering designed to make easier the recognition phase, the neutral conductor and earth. They all have a specific color and paper are easily distinguished. About that, what is the color of the wires phase, zero earth and will be discussed further.
When dealing with the most dangerous wiring phase conductors. Touching phase, under certain circumstances, can become fatal, because, perhaps, they are selected for bright colors. Generally, the colors of the wires in the electrical to quickly identify which of the wire bundle are the most dangerous, and work with them very carefully.
The colors of the phase conductors
Most often, the phase conductors are red or black, but there are other colors: brown, purple, orange, pink, purple, white, gray. Here are all these colors can be painted phase. With them it will be easier to understand, if we exclude the neutral conductor and earth.
The diagrams phase wires marked with the Latin (English) L. letters when there are several phases to the letter added to the numerical notation: L1, L2, L3 for three-phase 380 V. In another version of the first phase is marked A, the second - B, the third - C .
By modern standards, the grounding conductor has a yellow-green color. It looks like it's usually yellow insulation with one or two longitudinal bright green stripes. But there are also coloring of the cross-yellow-green stripes.
Such colors may be grounded
In some cases, the cable can only be yellow or bright green wires. In this case, the "earth" is just such a color. The same colors it is displayed in the schemes - often bright green, but can also be yellow. Subscribe to the circuits or equipment "land" in Latin (English) letters PE. It is also marked and the contacts to which "ground" wire should be connected.
Sometimes the professionals call the ground wire "protective earth", but do not confuse. It is earthy, and protective it because reduces the risk of electric shock.
Zero or neutral is blue or blue color, sometimes - blue with a white stripe. Other colors in electrics for zero is not used. Thus it will be in any cable: three-core, or five-wire with a large number of conductors.
What color is neutral? Blue or light blue
Blue usually draw "zero" in the diagrams, and signed by the Latin letter N. Experts call it a working zero, since it, unlike the earth, is involved in the formation of the power supply circuit. When reading his schemes are often defined as "negative", while the phase is considered a "plus".
How can I verify the marking and rasklyucheniya
The colors of the wires in the electrical conductors are designed to accelerate the identification, but rely solely on the color of danger - they could not properly connected. Therefore, before starting work, it is necessary to make sure you have correctly identified their affiliation.
Take a multimeter and / or indicator screwdriver. With a screwdriver work is simple: when you touch the phase LED lights mounted in the housing. So to determine the phase conductors will be easy. If the two-wire cable, no problems - the second conductor is zero. But if the three-wire cable, need a multimeter or tester - use them to determine which of the two remaining phase, which - zero.
Determination of the phase conductor using a screwdriver indicator
The instrument expose the switch so that a selected jackals was 220 W. Then take two probes, keeping them for plastic handle, gently metal rod We touch one probe to the detected phase conductor, the second - to the intended zero. The screen should be highlighted 220 in the current or voltage. In fact, it can be much lower - it is our reality.
If was highlighted 220 or a bit more - it's a zero, and the other lead - presumably the "land." If the value is less, we continue to check. One probe again touch the stage, the second - in the alleged ground. If the readings are lower than in the first measurement, before you "land" and it should be green. If the readings were higher then somewhere messed up in front of you and at "zero". In such a situation there are two options: look for where it is wrongly connected wire (preferred) or just move on, remembering or noting the status quo.
Now, remember, that the continuity pair "phase-zero" reading the meter is always greater than for continuity pair "phase-to-earth."
And, in conclusion, let me advice when installing wiring and connecting wires connect the conductors are always the same color, do not confuse them. This can lead to disastrous results - in the best case to the output of equipment failure, but there may be injuries and fires.
The best phase indicator - neon lamp. Fails without interference from the buggy, does not require batteries. Everything else - the Chinese crap.
The colors of the wires in the electrical 3 main points of contacts
The electrical wire can be easily distinguished from each other in their color Those who at least once in his life had to deal with electric cables, could not help but pay attention that the cables always have a different color of the insulation. Think of it not for the beauty and bright colors. It is thanks to colors in the clothing wire is easier to detect phase, ground and neutral wire. They all have their characteristic color, which many times makes it easy and safe to work with electrical wiring. The most important thing for the master - is to know which wire is which color should be indicated.
When working with electrical wiring maximum danger is posed by the wires connected to the phase. Contact with the phase can be fatal, so these electric wires are selected most striking, for example, red, warning color.
In addition, if the wires are labeled with different colors, then the repair of this or that detail, you can quickly determine which of the bundle of wires is necessary to check first, and which ones are the most dangerous.
Most often, for the phase conductors, use the following colors:
In order not to confuse wire should make a table on paper, deciphering the color of each wire
It is in this color phase conductors can be painted. You will be able easier to deal with them, if we exclude the neutral conductor and earth. For convenience, the diagram image of the phase conductor is usually denoted by the letter L. Latin If there is not a single phase, and a few, to the letter should be added to the numerical designation, which looks like this: L1, L2 and L3, for three-phase to 380 V networks. In some embodiments, the first phase (w) can be designated by the letter A, the second - B, and the third - C.
What color is the ground wire
In accordance with modern standards, the grounding conductor must be yellow-green color. In appearance it is similar to yellow insulation, on which there are two bright green longitudinal stripes. But sometimes found and painting of the cross green and yellow stripes.
Sometimes, only a bright green or yellow wires can be in the cable. In this case, the "earth" will be referred to it in this color. Appropriate colors it will also be displayed on diagrams. Most often, engineers draw from bright green, but sometimes it can be seen, and yellow wires. Represent on circuits or devices "land" in Latin (English) PE letters. Accordingly, labeled and contacts, where the "ground" wire should be connected.
Sometimes experts call the ground wire "null and protective", but should not be confused. If you see this symbol, you should know that this is the ground wire, and it is called a protective because it reduces the risk of electric shock.
Zero or neutral conductor has the following color marking:
No color in electrics for marking the neutral wire is not used. So you find him anywhere, whether it is three-core, five-wire, and perhaps with even more conductors. Blue and shades usually draw "zero" in the various schemes. Professionals call it a working zero, so that (which is not the grounding) is involved in the wiring from the power supply. Some people, when reading schemes call it negative, while the phase of all consider the "plus".
How to check the wiring by color
The colors of the wires in the electricity invented in order to accelerate the identification of conductors. However, rely on color alone is dangerous, because a beginner, or an irresponsible employee of CSL, and could connect them incorrectly. In this connection, before starting work, you must verify the correctness of their marking or connection.
In order to validate the polarity of the wires, take a screwdriver indicator or multimeter. It is worth noting that with a screwdriver on a lot easier to work when you touch the stage lights mounted in the LED housing.
If a two-conductor cable, then the problem is almost no- you have eliminated the phase, then a second conductor that remains is zero. Often, however, there are also three-core wire. There has to determine you need a tester or multimeter. With their help, as is not difficult to determine which wire phase (positive), and what - zero.
This is done as follows:
- The instrument is set so that the switch to select the jackal more than 220 V.
- Then you need to pick up the two probes, and holding their plastic handles, very carefully We touch the core of one of the probes to the found-phase wire, and the second was leaning against the alleged zero.
- After that the screen will have to be highlighted 220, or the voltage, which is in fact a network. Today it may be lower.
between a wire can be connected via an insulating tape
If the display shows the value of 220 or something in this limit, then the other wire - is zero, and the remaining -. Presumably "land" If the value appears on the display is less necessary to continue checking. One probe again touch the stage, others in the alleged ground. If the readings are lower than in the case of the first measurement, then in front of you "land". According to the standards it should be green or yellow. If suddenly turned up evidence, it means that somewhere messed up, and before you "zero" wire. The way out of this situation is either look for exactly where wires connected wrong, or leaving it as it is, noting that the wires are reversed.
Designations of wires in electrical circuits: features connection
Starting any electrical work on the lines, which is already laid network, you must ensure the correct wiring. This is done with the help of special testing equipment.
It is necessary to remember that when checking the connection "phase-zero" reading of the indicator the meter will always be higher than in the case of continuity pair "phase-to-earth."
The wires in the electrical circuits are color-coded according to the norms. This fact allows the electrician in a short time to find a zero, grounding, and phase. If these wires are connected properly with each other, there is a short circuit. Sometimes such mistake leads to the fact that the person receives an electric shock. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore the rules (PUE) connection, and you must know that the special colors of the wires is designed to ensure the safety when working with electrical wiring. Moreover, this systematization considerably reduce the electrician, as he has the ability to quickly find his contact.
Working with electric cables of different colors:
- If you need to install a new, or replace the old outlet, not necessarily determine the phase. Fork does not matter which side you connect it.
- In the case where you connect a switch of the chandelier, you should know that it is necessary to apply a particular phase, and to the bulbs just zero.
- If the color phase and the contacts and the ground absolutely identical, then the value of the conductors is determined by using the indicator screwdriver, wherein the handle is made of transparent plastic with a diode inside.
- Before define a conductor electric circuit in the home or other premises need to de-energize and the ends of wires stripped and diluted to the sides. If you do not, they may inadvertently come into contact and get a short circuit.
The use of color coding in the electrical much easier lives. In addition, thanks to the color markings on a high level of safety up when working with wires that are energized.
Symbols and colors of the wires in the electrical (video)
Those who work with electric wiring, whether skilled or novice master electricians, should be careful in the process of mounting electrical wiring and how to know which wire is designated. When routing wiring and connected contacts always connect wires according to the color coding on the new rules, and for the sake of their safety and respect for those who will work with them in the future, do not confuse them. Remember that your mistake can lead to negative consequences disastrous.
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