- 1 What is the water pressure is considered normal?
- 1.1 What is the water pressure in the water is the norm
- 1.2 The pressure in the city and private conduit
- 1.3 What to consider when choosing plumbing
- 1.4 The optimum pressure value for the normal operation of household appliances
- 1.5 How to measure the pressure in the water
- 1.6 How to reduce the water pressure in the water
- 1.7 Methods for increasing water pressure in the water
- 1.8 Classification circulators
- 1.9 Self-priming pumping station
- 1.10 Features of non-centralized water supply systems
- 2 pressure norms for supplying water to an apartment
- 3 What is the water pressure must be in the water and how to improve
What is the water pressure is considered normal?
Water - a communication system as complicated constructions of pipes and valves for supplying water to the consumers. To determine the effectiveness of the work applied the concept of "water pressure" in the water. From this figure depends correct operation of plumbing fixtures and comfortable committing hygienic measures.
The consequence of low pressure in the system is the lack of water pressure, which delivers a lot of inconvenience to residents loft apartment buildings. This phenomenon makes it difficult to work dishwashers and washing machines, or even impossible to use the massage showers and jacuzzi.
However, there are several ways to deal with such a complicating factor in life. If the low pressure does not cause lies in the usual clogging of pipes, the water pressure in the water can be controlled by installing a device ensuring maximum comfort for the life of the discharge pressure.
What is the water pressure in the water is the norm
To measure the fluid pressure in the pipeline unit used, which differ slightly in their values. Despite minor differences, the indicators are equal to one another.
1 bar is equal to 0.0197 atmospheres and 10.19 meters of water column.
Pumping equipment enabling the supply of water to a height of 30 m, develops at the output pressure of 3 bar (3 atm). If a submersible pump pumping water from a well or borehole 10 m deep requires 1 bar, then the remaining 2 bars to provide fluid lifting water intake points.
The pressure in the city and private conduit
In order to optimize water pressure in city water, do not take into account the delivery of fluid from the well. water is supplied from a central network. However, owners of country cottages with an autonomous water supply should take into account the level of the source, or rather the depth at which it is determined the pump equipment in the mine pit. When the water passes through the pipeline it overcomes some resistance, which should also be taken into account when calculating the required pressure.
In accordance with the GOST standards and pressure in urban systems must be 4 atmosphere. However, users of the water supply system connected to the central stations, accurate information about what the water pressure in the water, do not give. This value may fluctuate within the range of 2.5-7.5 atmospheres.
What to consider when choosing plumbing
Increasing the water pressure in the water to more than 7 atmospheres devastating effect on sensitive sanitary devices, connecting elements in the piping and valves ceramic. Residents of city apartments is advisable to buy equipment for water supply with the maximum safety margin. This will help avoid repair work provoked sharp pressure jumps in the future.
All installed faucets, taps, pumps must firmly withstand the water pressure is 6-7 atmospheres. It should be noted that in checking the annual seasonal pressure may reach up to 10 atmospheres.
The optimum pressure value for the normal operation of household appliances
The minimum water pressure in the water 2 in the atmosphere is sufficient to perform the following tasks:
- taking a shower;
- washing kitchen utensils;
- other hygiene needs;
- the normal functioning of the washing machine.
Head 4 of the atmosphere allows to extend the range of problems to which the adoption of a massage shower and Jacuzzi with irrigating infield vegetation.
The country houses the pressure should be sufficient for simultaneous multiple of intake water consumption points. In order not to mar the lives of family members, the water supply should be equivalent in all sanitary units and be at least 1.5 atmospheres.
The water pressure in the fire water system may be high and low. Fire high-pressure water is used to extinguish a large industrial, commercial and public buildings. Construct a water pressure of 2.5 l / s per country site does not make sense. Holders houses should be noted that the minimum value of water pressure in the fire water system should be at least 1.5 l / s.
How to measure the pressure in the water
Measurement of water pressure in the water is performed with a manometer. Before installation of the device is necessary to block the cold or hot water, depending on how the water pressure force to be measured. Place in the system for the installation of the device should be user friendly and easily accessible. Next you will need a steel tube 5 cm in length. By means of plates must be made an external thread on the pipe, it is possible to accurately fit to a manometer. In order to cut a hole in the tube of the desired diameter and to attach thereto prepared tube section, you can use the welding machine.
The pressure gauge is mounted on a metal pipe by means of a spanner. There are special sealing materials for solving leakage problems in the joints. After installation is complete the device, it is possible to initiate testing of pressure in the water. To do this, restore the water supply and fix the indicators on the gauge.
How to reduce the water pressure in the water
To stabilize the pressure reduction and water using a special reducer. It protects against water hammer is not only the water but also connected thereto appliances. A small device is arranged in a sealed metal enclosure. The pressure regulator has two threaded pipe situated upstream and downstream. In some cases it may be arranged third nozzle for mounting the pressure gauge and a screw for adjusting the water pressure.
Reducer operates on the principle of equalization aperture efforts and the setting spring. If the valve is opened in the water, the outlet pressure in the apparatus is reduced, thereby reducing the pressure on the diaphragm. The spring force thus increases. It opens a hole up until the pressure in the water at the outlet reaches a certain value. High blood pressure or jumps do not affect the opening and closing of the valve.
Methods for increasing water pressure in the water
Most often, the problem of low water pressure in the system face:
- owners of apartments in apartment buildings, located on the upper floors;
- owners of suburban areas in the summer, when the water flow is greatly increased.
Before proceeding with the installation of equipment, providing the increase of water pressure in the water, the residents of city apartments should find out the cause of the problem. Gentle pressure may be caused by debris in the lines of small objects or calcareous sediments. As a result of this reduced diameter tube and the water is supplied in a smaller volume. Solve this problem only complete replacement of pipes.
If a low pressure in the other reason is to stabilize the flow of water using the following methods:
- installing a circulation pump, which increases the pressure by suction of more water from the pipes;
- installing a pump station with accumulator;
- battery supply network.
Choosing the right option depends on several factors:
- water supply is regular, but the pressure is insufficient for normal life and work of household appliances - to strengthen the pressure helps the circulation pump;
- the water does not reach the upper floors of the house - suitable pumping station.
There are several modes of operation of the pumps:
- Manual - work equipment is carried out in a continuous mode. However, in order to avoid overheating or failure of the pump should be time off.
- Automatic - equipped with a flow sensor. the pump is automatically activated when the water is turned off, making it more economical and durable.
As the functionality of the pumps are divided into classes:
- universal - installation is possible for the hot and cold water;
- only for cold or hot water.
The advantages of the pumping equipment are the low cost and compact size. However, it is worth remembering that the pumps increase the pressure by 30%. Their installation is justified if the water pressure in the water system, the rules of which constitute not less than 1.5 atmospheres, equivalent to all the water intake points.
Self-priming pumping station
Water pressure can be increased by setting the pump station. As a rule, it consists of the following elements:
- centrifugal pump to increase the pressure of water;
- accumulator 1-3 cubic meters;
- pressure switch - controls the entire system.
At normal water supply to the appliance will not be activated. If there is water pressure in the water, which is very different from the norm established, the pump will automatically turn on. Typically, the accumulator is filled at night, at a higher pressure in the system. The greater the capacity for accumulation of fluid, the less likely the unit will be turned on and the longer its life. This system maintains the pressure level at 3-4 atmospheres.
Before installing the pump station should be remembered that this equipment requires a large space for installation. Regular cleaning tank (not less than 1 times within 2 days). Accumulator can be mounted on the roof, in the basement or in the ground.
Features of non-centralized water supply systems
Specificity of autonomous water supply systems is the need to lift water from wells or mine wells, as well as providing good pressure all water intake points at home, and remote locations in the garden. Work decentralized water supply system not only depends on the water pressure, but also on the flow rate.
The efficiency of the pumping equipment should be possible to meet the planned volume of water consumption and discharge silo pit. To calculate the best to take water consumption rates in the summer, when they reach the maximum value.
pressure norms for supplying water to an apartment
Plumbing - it familiar, but at the same time, an amazing system. Due to the complex communication network from the taps, floors and pipes, water enters into the apartment of the consumer. However, it may happen that the tap water will flow somehow. If this happens, it means that the case in low pressure.
First of all you need to know that the water is fed water supply organization, and then in the house by means of communications, the cost of apartments. During its existence, the standards were revised many times. Not the fact that the officials will be able to easily recall the actual values.
The ratio to the water supply is quite difficult to understand. In him based on many factors, such as:
- Number of floors in the building.
- The height of the house.
- The number of apartments.
- Number of the registered tenants.
- Floor residence.
- And many other factors.
Therefore, it can be argued that the pressure for each apartment individually. However, if there is a suspicion that water pressure is insufficient, you need to look guilty. For example, if the neighbors from the pressure everything is in order, it is quite possible that the problem is in your apartment. If the neighbors above and below also do not complain, you can say for sure that a fault in the apartment or in the riser.
Every 10 m water demand delivery pressure equal to 1 bar, or 1.0197 atm. That is, to "deliver" the water on the surface of the ten-well, it will take pressure of 1 atm. To determine the pressure at the water supply norm was designed SNIP 2.04.02-84.
According to this document and approve the rules, which is 10 m "path" should account for 1 atm. Also, there is specified that the height of the floor is equal to 1 to 4 m Proceeding from this, it is easy to calculate the rate, e.g., 18 to the floor: 10+ (4 * 18) = 82 m, ie normal pressure at the inlet to the house - 8,... 2 atm.
In this SNP is also referred to the maximum free head in the same apartment. The value should not exceed 6 atmospheres (or 60 m). Paragraph 5.12 states that the maximum pressure for sanitary devices should not be more than 4.5 atm. However, the pressure must be at least:
- 0.2 atm - WC with flush tanks.
- 0.2 atm - for shells having mixers.
- 0.3 atm - bath with mixers.
- 0, 3 bar - for showers, with mixers.
Further, the document provides valid values for cold and hot water. Thus, for the first pressure be at a rate of from 0.3 to 6 atm, and the second from 0.3 to 4.5 atm. According to these data, you can easily find out whether performed in your home pressure standards to the water supply. However it is necessary to add that during the repair work, the upper value can be up to 10 atm.
To function properly, a man needs water. The precise volume of fluid It depends on the weight and activity level:
In addition to domestic consumption, water is also necessary for compliance needs. Thus, for example, 2 atm pressure sufficient to:
- Taking a shower.
- Operation of the washing machine.
- Washing dishes.
- And other small needs.
At the same time for watering the garden or use of a Jacuzzi need already 4 atmospheric pressure. Therefore, in the urban or suburban homes minimum pressure greater (typically between 1 and 5 atm). It is necessary to be able simultaneously to water the garden, wash the dishes, take a shower, and so on. D. However, since high blood pressure leads to accelerated destruction of the plumbing, it is recommended to purchase equipment with a high margin of safety and resilience to sudden changes in water pressure.
Devices for pressurization
As a rule, insufficient pressure is typical for urban apartments on the upper floors of houses and country houses in the summer period, when there is a shortage of water. As mentioned in the beginning, when there is insufficient pressure in the apartment, it is necessary to find the cause of the problem. For example, if communications have not been repaired, it may be clogged pipes and reducing their capacity. In such a case would be effective only replacing the water distribution system.
If problems with clogging is observed, increase the pressure possibly one of three ways:
- Install a stand-alone system for water supply.
- Equip a pumping station having a pressure accumulator.
- Put the circulation pump capable of increasing the pressure and pulling large amounts of water.
Installing circular pump will be the most effective solution in low pressure. The main condition - that the water supply was uninterrupted. If faults still occur, it is best to equip the autonomous system or pumping station with accumulator.
To mount the battery must supply system know the daily water consumption and the value of the existing pressure. Typically, such devices are installed in private homes, where there is access to a well or borehole. But in most cases, the installation of such a system, the pressure remains weak or exceeds acceptable values that lead to rapid destruction of sewage. Therefore, the correct solution would be consultation with specialists, or payment for their services according to the calculations and installation of autonomous systems.
The pumping station is perfect if there are frequent water shortages. The device itself does not differ intricate and consists of:
- Tank for 1-3 cubic meters of performing the function of the accumulator.
- A pump having a centrifugal force and is intended to increase the pressure.
- The relay, which controls the whole system.
The principle of operation is also simple - if the pressure is lower than normal, the relay automatically includes the installation and the tank is filled with water. Typically, the content takes place at night, when there is sufficient pressure. However, with all its advantages, the system is very demanding on the free space, as well as constant cleaning of the tank.
Finally, increasing the pressure, circular pump. Such devices are divided into manual and automatic. The work of the first option, you must keep an eye on time and turn off to avoid overheating occurred. Automatic pump is switched on when you open the tap water supply on and off when it is closed. It is clear that the automatic option is more convenient and economical.
Insufficient water pressure can cause a lot of inconvenience. To control the water pressure can be use SNIP 2.04.02-84, where there is a simple formula for calculating the norm. If you find that the pressure is not enough, you can begin to identify the cause of the problem and apply the appropriate authorities.
Also at insufficient pressure can be dispensed installation of special devices to increase water pressure. The market is quite diverse with such devices, so pick up something for yourself is not difficult. The only recommendation - choose wisely slowly.
What is the water pressure must be in the water and how to improve
Water - a complex communication network by a system of pipes and valves for supplying water to the consumers. To assess the quality of this system is used a parameter called the "water pressure", whose value has a direct influence on the correct operation of sanitary equipment and comfortable holding hygiene procedures. A consequence of the low water pressure in the water mains pressure is inadequate, characterized by a trickle of water flowing from a faucet.
Low water pressure precludes the use of a massage shower and a jacuzzi at home makes it difficult or even impossible to work washing machine or dishwasher.
What is the water pressure is normal
The water pressure in the water supply network is measured in atmospheres or bars.
1 bar is equal to 10.19 m of water column, or 1.0197 atm. The pump supplying water at tridtsatimetrovoy height develops on the output pressure of 3 atmospheres or 3 bar. 1 If a bar is needed to pump water from a well depth of 10 m, then 2 bars (20 m column of water) will remain for the delivery of water to the water consumption points.
According to GOST standards in centralized urban water supply system is considered normal pressure of 4 atmospheres. In reality it may range 2.5-7 atmospheres and during periods of seasonal surges parity water works could reach 10 atmospheres.
What pressure is sufficient for full use?
The pressure in the atmosphere is sufficient to 2:
- taking a shower,
- washing dishes
- other daily needs
- the normal functioning of the washing machine
The minimum pressure of 4 atm requires:
- for the use of the Jacuzzi or massage shower
- Irrigation suburban area
The country cottages pressure should allow the simultaneous intake of water several points that may have been at one time to take a shower, wash dishes and watering a flower bed in the yard. Therefore at each point of pressure should be at least 1.5 atm.
Important! Increasing the pressure in the water over 6 bar leads to rapid wear and destruction of the sensor and ceramic sanitary ware valves.
When buying plumbing to be connected to the public water mains, it is recommended to choose equipment having a certain safety margin, designed to possible abrupt changes of pressure and hammering.
How to increase the water pressure
The problem of insufficient water pressure most likely to encounter:
- residents of city apartments on the upper floors of high-rise buildings;
- owners of country houses in the summer, when the water is greatly increased analysis.
The owners of city apartments, before taking the decision to acquire equipment to increase water pressure, you need to find out the cause of the problem. Insufficient pressure may be associated with clogging of pipes mechanical particles and calcium deposits, resulting eventually reduced diameter tubes. In this case, help is only a replacement water supply.
If the problem is not related to the clogging of pipes, water pressure may stabilize in the following ways:
- Obtain and install the circulation pump, which increases the pressure and promotes elongation greater volume of water from the pipes;
- Set pump station with accumulator;
- Equipped with autonomous water supply system.
To select the desired options Narrow problem:
- water is constant, but the pressure is not enough for comfortable use and operation of household equipment;
- water is only on the lower floors of the building, and on top - no.
In the first case, when the pressure, though weak, has constantly strengthened its help the circulation pump. It is small in size and power of the device cuts into the existing water system immediately before the water consumption points.
Classification pump increases pressure in the water
Pumps are divided into working in one of the modes:
- manual - Provides continuous operation of the equipment. For such a pump to be watched and in time to turn it off to avoid overheating and malfunction.
- automatic, When operation of the pump is regulated by the flow sensor. When the water begins to work the pump. Such manual mode is preferable, because the pump is protected from operation in the absence of water (in dry mode). He economical and lasts longer.
pumping equipment design is characterized by the cooling method of the case:
- dry rotor: In which the body is cooled blades mounted on the shaft. Features of these models are: high efficiency, the presence of a small noise during operation;
- wet rotor: Cooled by the pumped liquid. For these pumps are characterized by quiet operation.
- Versatile - can be used for hot and cold water;
- only used for hot or cold water.
high-pressure pumps are:
- compact size, they can be installed in small spaces;
- low cost.
Attention! Pumps to increase the pressure can increase the water pressure is no more. than 30%. Their installation is very rewarding if the existing pressures on the network - not less than 1.5 bar.
Where necessary to ensure a constant high pressure and if water is often absent, it is recommended to upgrade the system by setting the self-priming pumping station, consisting of:
- Centrifugal pump increasing the water pressure
- accumulator (tank) in volume of 1-3 cubic meters
- pressure switches, control the entire system.
At normal pressure, the setting is not activated, the relay include it when the pressure below the norm. Typically, the tank is filled at night, when the pressure is high in the system. The larger the tank, the less the pump is switched on, the longer it will last. Such a system can maintain an optimal level of pressure of 3-4 bar.
It is important to know! Pumping station requires a more complex service than the pump is mounted in the water.
- The station requires a large space for installation;
- The tank should be cleaned regularly, we can not allow stagnation of Boda in the tank for more than 2 days;
- The accumulator can be mounted on the roof, in the basement or in the ground.
↑ Back to contents
Specificity of autonomous water supply systems
When an autonomous water supply system equipment must take into account the following features:
- Providing lifting water from a well or wells;
- It is necessary to ensure adequate water pressure in all, even the most remote, water consumption points.
Work standalone water network depends on two parameters:
Depending on the flow rate (performance) of the well or wells are two possible situations in the operation of a private water supply system:
- performance pressureless wells or wells with a weak pressure does not cover the daily requirement of water in the building. Source periodically emptied, due to which the pressure falls;
- well performance is much higher than the daily water consumption. The pressure in such case may exceed 6 bar, which causes the occurrence of leaks in the connection and rapid wear of plumbing.
Note! Select pumping equipment, focusing on its performance. It should be possible to meet the planned water use and discharge wells. To calculate take daily consumption of water in the summer, when water demand maximum
Exact calculations of the performance of pumping equipment and professional advice regarding the installation of pumping stations are available from the employees of companies engaged in the installation of such equipment. on the existing network modernization project are able to perform their plumbing housing department or the owner of property in the presence of a particular experience.