- 1 The slope and the value for the effective use of a sewer pipe
- 1.1 The slope of the sewer pipes in private homes
- 1.2 Calculation of internal drainage slope
- 1.3 Definition of pipe fullness
- 1.4 Specifics of determining the slope of sewer pipes
- 1.5 The normalized slope values sewers
- 1.6 Standards bias outdoor sewerage
- 2 How to set the slope of sewerage per 1 meter SNIP
- 2.1 What is the angle of the pipeline?
- 2.2 Errors in selecting inclination angle pipes
- 2.3 How to calculate the degree of fullness of a pipeline
- 2.4 The formula for calculating the slope of pipes
- 2.5 The angle of inclination for external engineering network
- 3 The slope of sewage in a private home - which must be
The slope and the value for the effective use of a sewer pipe
The slope of sewer pipes - one of the most important conditions for the natural outflow of sewage. The correct course of gutters will ensure long-term operability of the system. Home network operates by gravity. When failure slope angle sewer stagnation can occur in the system which require regular cleaning and complicate the operation.
When installing sewer pipes required to calculate their bias for unimpeded water flow
The slope of the sewer pipes in private homes
Replacement of sewer pipes in the apartment must begin with reference to existing guidelines. Design and construction are based on the implementation of building codes and regulations (SNIP). Standards SNP set minimum slopes of sewer pipes, useful for the inner and outer gutter system.
Note! Not recommended in a private home slope of sewer pipes is set at the maximum value.
Too large an angle of inclination of the sewer pipe will increase the outflow of the fluid velocity. When this solid impurities and particles will settle on the inner surface of the gutter, which will eventually lead to stagnation disruption siphons and applies odors. The apartments can be difficult to comply with the required slope for sewer pipes. It is that, whatever the slope was not, it is not always sufficient. In such cases, use the vertical pads.
Whatever the project, the existing rules and parameters is better not to exceed. For more accurate determination of the correctness of a private home tilt angles of sewer pipes is better to consult a specialist.
The MDU pipes have not only horizontally but also vertically
Calculation of internal drainage slope
Sources drainage devices are internal network at home or apartment. These include a toilet, shower, sink, sink, toilet. For a smooth outflow of water must take into account the slope of the soil pipe.
Snip leads measurement bias sewer pipes only in centimeters. The minimum allowable slope sewer pipe required to be 2 cm to 1 meter product.
In other words, each successive meter sewer pipe is tilted by 2 cm, ie. E. Is located below. Note that in such measurements angle must necessarily be measured in units of length, but not in degrees, because otherwise the calculations are performed with large errors. This will lead to errors in the gasket and the inner and outer sewer network.
For the purpose of simplification of the computational operations to determine a slope angle of a private house sewer pipe is used a simple formula.
Definition of pipe fullness
Calculation of the level of fullness of plastic, cast iron or asbestos-cement pipe allows to calculate the speed of movement on it drains to avoid clogging. From fullness depends on any slope in a private house sewer pipe is better to prefer. Calculation according to the formula:
where H - fullness, B - height level effluents, D - diameter of the pipeline.
Note! The maximum value of fullness is 1, then the tube is filled to 100%, and no bias domestic sewage.
Calculating the index of fullness of the pipe, it is necessary to take into account the material used in pipes
The percentage of fill soil pipe drains better to choose at 50-60. It is also necessary to take into account the material of which the pipe is made and its angle relative to the septic tank. Asbestos products and cast-iron pipes are filled quickly because of the high roughness of their surfaces.
The main purpose is to calculate the maximum allowable speed for sewage. By the same principle, a determination of the minimum slope of the outer sewage. Because external networks used large diameter pipes, and the slope is large.
Specifics of determining the slope of sewer pipes
To determine what should be the slopes of sewer pipes should have information about the length of the entire drainage system. Supplemental information resulting values with fractional values.
Consider a specific example calculation sewer slope in the apartment or private home. Suppose the system is installed in pipes with a diameter of 10 cm and a total length of 15 meters. The total angle of sewer pipes in the private house (flat) is obtained by multiplying the length of the tube at a slope that is specified in CCITT or SNP.
tube laying level depends on its diameter - than it is, the stronger the bias
In this case, the calculation is as follows: 15 m (length of the system) * 0.02 (standard deviation) = 0.3 m, or 30 cm.
The resulting figure is the difference between the setting point of the start point and the end of the pipe is 30 cm.
The normalized slope values sewers
Accuracy of bias sewer pipe is a function of its diameter. The following table provides information on how to be a bias in the sewer depending on the device type.
SNP except tilt sewer pipe determines how the waste water is generally complex should be assembled. The main principles are as follows:
- Suitable sewer slope in a private home is dependent on the diameter of the existing riser.
- Riser diameter and 11 cm in set angle of 2 centimeters per meter.
- Minimum deviation of sewer pipes with a diameter up to 5 cm is three cm per meter.
- Slopes sewage (what they should be) for the tube section 16 cm set at 0.8 cm per meter of gutter.
Note! The slope of the sewer pipe is taken into consideration already at the stage of building design or construction.
Drain pipe in the bathroom of each device has its diameter, so there are rules for all the pipes slope santehpriborov
Standards bias outdoor sewerage
Drainage pipes and removes processed wastewater from sanitary devices inside the house to the septic tank. Often, this mounting system used cast iron, asbestos or plastic corrugated tube. Since the products for outdoor networks have large diameters, for them there are separate requirements SNIP:
- If the outer tube section 15 cm, the minimum pitch sewage set at 0.8 cm per meter.
- The maximum value of the slope drainage is 15 cm to one meter.
- Minimum slope for sewage pipe diameter of 20 cm is 0.7 cm per meter.
The most suitable for the house will be gravity systems. It provides the formation of the desired relief on the route of the pipeline. Trench digging for which external elements must provide sufficient external dodging sewage. Pipes for external drainage system must be placed lower than the freezing point of the earth. In addition, it is necessary to apply any available method of insulation.
Then what should be the slope at the sewer pipes depends on the permissible limits. The optimal variant is between the minimum and maximum indicator. For outdoor sewerage maximum deviations are permissible only during retraction of pure water with no risk of clogging the pipeline.
Already at the design stage, you need to decide what should be in the sewer pipe slope. On the validity of the organization depends on the sewage system longevity and efficiency of operation.
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How to set the slope of sewerage per 1 meter SNIP
Competent installation of sewage system is not possible without prior calculation. It is necessary to determine the pipe diameter, the velocity of wastewater and sewage slope 1 meter snip. Mistakes in Choosing the latter option can cause significant problems in the autonomous sewer.
What is the angle of the pipeline?
Installation of sewer pipes should not be carried out on the horizon, and there is to it at a slight angle, the value of which is determined by special regulations. To indicate the pipes slope used not familiar degrees system, here the coefficient is determined in centimeters per meter. This dimension allows you to avoid large errors in the assembly line to a septic tank. The length of this branch can be 10-12 meters and withstand a predetermined angle is very difficult. The proposed designation shows - as far as one end of the pipe length of 1 meter should be higher than the other.
Attention. In the references pipe slope represents a single or a decimal fraction. For example, the coefficient 0.03 is the slope of 3 cm 1 meter.
The ratio of the pipe diameter and the recommended slope
In addition to the recommended slope of sewerage per 1 meter, the specification defines the maximum and minimum rate.
The upper limit of the permissible value should not exceed 0.15, it means the slope per meter pipe 15 cm. A larger ratio may be used in short sections adjacent to sanitary appliances. It is necessary to take into account the flow rate, it can not be more than 1.4 m / s, otherwise the solid fractions settle on the walls of the pipe. Wastewater consist of numerous slurries and particles with different viscosity and fluidity. When deviation exceeding 15 cm, they delaminate - liquid goes into a septic tank, and the remaining fraction silt pipe.
The minimum rate is determined for each section of the tube:
If these indicators pipeline become clogged very quickly. At selected sites, a length of not more than 1 meter, the coefficient 0.01 is allowed.
Errors in selecting inclination angle pipes
Normal functioning of the system exhaust contaminated water provides the force of gravity, the liquid moves through pipes by gravity. The following failures occur when the wrong choice of angle:
- Insufficient bias sewage - waste water are slow and stagnate in the pipe that leads to the formation of blockages. Especially detrimental phenomenon for cast iron mains, which are subject to increased corrosion, and leaks occur gusts.
- Large angle of inclination - acceleration of the flow leads to insufficient cleaning of pipes, the water quickly goes away, and the coarse fractions are on the walls. Employment of such a line is accompanied by noise and breakdown of water siphons on the gate.
Recommended coefficient decreases with increasing diameter of the tube:
Improper installation of the pipeline
How to calculate the degree of fullness of a pipeline
For stable operation of sewage are important such indicators:
- effluent flow rate V;
- filling of the sewer system K.
H - height of the level of wastewater;
D - sewer section.
Calculating the level of fullness line, one can determine the optimal flow rate at which the system will operate without sedimentation and trash blockage. Complete filling of the tube 1, the ventilation system is disturbed, and can be broken hydraulic locks. The effective index is 0.5-0.6, if it drops to 0.3, the liquid is insufficient for flushing solids. This factor depends on the material pipe, smooth plastic has a lower occupancy than the rough cast iron and asbestos.
Council. Description sequence of calculations and the required formulas are taken from SNP 2.04.01-85.
The formula for calculating the slope of pipes
The flow velocity of the merged waste is a key parameter in the calculation of optimal bias sewer pipe. Its minimum value is 0.7 m / s. Perform a calculation for an individual system can be according to the formula:
K - filling pipe for polymeric materials ratio - 0.5 for cast iron - 0.6;
d - section of the tube;
V - flow rate.
From the formula it follows that the ratio of the velocity of motion of sewage to the fullness line should not be less than the coefficient K. In case of H / d = 0 - empty sewage, and the flow rate can not be calculated.
Recommendations for mounting internal sewerage system
The apartments and the interior layout of a private house used pipes of small diameter, in addition to connecting the toilet. The slope of the sewer pipe of 50 mm used for baths, sinks and shower of 3 cm per meter. When installing a line length of 10 meters, its highest point must be 30 cm from the lowest. Arranging your own layout, you must act according to the rules:
- horizontal pipes are not allowed in turns 90º, need to install two shaped elements at 45º;
- Connect the vertical sections at right angles permitted standards;
- excludes changes in the type of sewage wirings at its different parts, it will lead to failure of the entire system as a result of water hammer;
- in some parts of the highway, with a short distance, may increase the slope above the maximum norm.
Layout of plumbing pipes with a slope
The angle of inclination for external engineering network
External networks are installed in pipes larger cross-section than the in-house wiring. Material for them is:
- Polyethylene pipe with a corrugated upper layer;
- cast iron;
Their installation according to SNIP norms should take into account the level of soil freezing. The depth of the trench may be between 70 cm in the middle zone up to 2 meters in the cold regions. In the field of rotation of the pipeline and at a length of pipeline than 12 meters, it is necessary to establish audit wells, these elements allow the system to clear blockages.
For a country house with two bathrooms using pipes of 110 mm diameter, if the house is three toilets and a recommended pipeline laying a section of 160 mm. When digging trenches left margin of 20 cm for leveling tube to the recommended draft angle. Each line has its own size recommended by the slope coefficient:
- 110 mm - 0,02 cm 2 or 1 meter;
- 160 mm - 0,008 mm or 8 mm to 1 meter.
Council. When assembling the outer pipe should be limited to the number of turns increase the inclination angle. Because of the terrain may have difficulties in providing the necessary bias.
Laying of the outer pipe
Compliance with standards allows you to save performance line when moving sewage by gravity. Optimal instrument to determine the correct slope is level, using it is possible to achieve high precision. But such a device is not at all, so find ways to check with the help of available funds. To measure will need:
In the trench, dig now hammered pegs - one at the beginning and the other at the end. Between them stretched the cord and using a spirit level is set on the horizon. Then the measured depth of the trench to the cord at the starting point and end point. The difference between these values is divided by the length of the pipeline should reach the required amount of tilt in the sewer pipe 1 meter. Fit value below the desired rate, it is possible to pour sand or deepening the bottom. Pipe laying is always carried out on a bed of compacted sand. The same material is performed before the initial filling of the top line, and is performed after backfilling of soil.
If the natural landscape area substantially exceeds the statutory rate, you can mount the pipe in two ways:
- to create a system that includes multiple vertical transitions and horizontal sections, packed with recommended slope;
- dig a deep trench in which to place one vertical segment at the beginning of the pipeline, the rest will be laid on the normative bias.
Compliance with the correct slope for installation of the pipeline inside and outside of private homes to provide smooth performance of battery drain.
The slope of sewage in a private home - which must be
Sewerage inclination taken into account when determining the place where you want to make a hole in the wall of a building or its foundations. If it will be calculated incorrectly, for installation purposes may occur inconvenience that would entail additional financial costs.
Installation according to snip sewer system is performed based on special tables, which indicate the average values used in the installation of central drain all plumbing devices.
Determining the slope of sewer pipes
The sewer system is:
Exhaust fluid and sewage from private homes in the following ways:
Pressure variation in a country house and grounds are used very rarely, because it is expensive, it is difficult to build such a device, and unreliable in comparison with gravity sewers. there is no need to perform calculations, what should be the sewer slope in a private home, as the water moves through the pipeline under pressure (for more details: "What should be the slope of the sewer pipe standards") at the decision to equip the penstock.
Making the calculation, we must remember that the slope of domestic sewage will be different from this indicator for outdoor and stormwater systems. The fact is, the liquid moves in each of them having a different composition. In this case, the outer sewer need to insulate.
The SNP 2,04.03-85 indicated that the size of the water drain bias affects the speed of movement of the waste liquid pipe material of manufacture and the degree of filling.
- for pipe passing inside the house, it should be 0.5-1 cm per linear meter;
- when laying the outer pipe - 1-2 centimeters.
But it's about value and more accurate parameters can be found during the detailed calculations.
Indicators sewage angle in a private house
This figure as the angle of inclination of the pipe in the regeneration effluent discharge system in a private house means a degree of change of its position relative to the horizontal line. Size deviation angle is calculated as the difference in height between the lowest point of the surface of the conduit at its beginning and end. The standard measurement system for comparing the designated angle in degrees.
In order to prevent errors when creating a sewerage - bias per meter is determined by the correct method of calculation.
In practice, two methods are used which allow effortlessly calculate the angle of inclination of the pipe:
Bezraschetny method enables to determine the difference in height on a particular segment of the pipeline, depending on its diameter. The average value of this parameter is equal to about 3%, and may vary according to the operating conditions.
Settlement method intended for sewer systems with constant pressure sinks.
- using the formula Colebrook-White syndrome;
- by determining speed matching drains through pipes regulatory factor.
For private homes use formulas difficult because know the degree of filling of the pipeline and the rate of fluid flow through it impossible without special equipment, which is used in their work by professionals in the calculation of the inclination angle. Therefore slant tubes are individually calculated for home ownership bezraschetnoy procedure.
Determination of sewer slope without formulas
When assembling the outer or inner sewage network without using complicated formulas are values with set limit. This is the maximum and minimum slope for drainage.
Maximum slope outdoor sewerage depends on the speed of movement of waste within the tube. So for the production of plastic, this parameter should not exceed 1.43 m / s. This increase in speed occurs division effluent into fractions, whereby the solid particles begin to settle. The maximum index gradient can not be more than 3%.
Under the correct installation of interior systems involve laying of pipes under a certain bias. It is 20 to 25 millimeters per linear meter that allows the passage of effluent without obstruction through the pipeline, thereby preventing the occurrence of clogging in the tubes without disturbing their ability to self-clean. The maximum allowable slope sewer can only be done in short segments highway.
To carry out the work required:
- Polyvinylchloride or polypropylene pipe diameter 50 - 100 mm;
- rubber seals into the socket;
Choose between polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene pipes difficult, so they prefer products that are available at your fingertips. For installation of polypropylene products require soldering. Polyvinylchloride pipes are connected by means of adhesive or rubber gasket.
For attachment of pipes to each other and to the walls employ clamps. With their help fix and riser pipe mounted in place O drains of construction.
Apparatus outdoor sewerage
When equipping outdoor sewerage network, proceed as follows:
- the starting point take the place of its exit from the building;
- minimum pitch external sewage by using 110-mm pipes is 0.02 meters (read "drain Arrangement outer - mounting options scheme"). When the line length of about 20 meters, the angle of inclination is 0.4 meters;
- the design of the outside network will certainly take into account the terrain;
- equip the drain hole at the site of its lowest point;
- to the depth of holes to be output pipe of the building, plus the value of inclination of the pipeline. The obtained result - a depth of the second line mark located at the drain well.
The depth of the pipeline in the regeneration occurrence outer sewer system must be below the frost line. Measure it at the highest point line. Knowledge of how to make the bias during installation outer sewage network help ensure the smooth movement of the waste liquid arranged in the house drain and thereby guarantee the self-cleaning of the pipeline and its stable operation.
Production of cast iron is considered to be the most durable, but it has a lot of weight. Choosing a pipe, you should pay attention to their inner surface, since it is desirable to make it smooth to the maximum and thus allow to avoid blockages.
Also, such work is performed by the combined method: the main part of a pipeline insulated by heat-insulating materials, and the pipe coming out of the house equipped with a heating cable.