- 1 calculation calculator:
- 2 Number of radiator sections
- 3 How to calculate the number of radiator sections
- 3.1 Calculation radiators area
- 3.2 How to calculate the radiator section in terms of space
- 3.3 Calculation of different types of radiators
- 3.4 Adjustment depending on the mode of the heating system
- 3.5 Dependence of power radiator connectivity and location
- 3.6 Quantification of radiators for pipe systems
number of sections of the radiator for heating
When calculating the necessary amount of heat captured area of the heated space required for calculating the rate of consumption of 100 watts per square meter. Also take into account a number of factors that influence the total heat loss from the room, each of these factors contributes a factor in the overall result of the calculation.
This calculation method includes virtually all the nuances and the formula is based on a fairly accurate determination of the need for space heat. It remains to divide the result by the value of the heat transfer section of one of aluminum, steel or bimetallic radiator and the result rounded up.
Number of radiator sections
Section (radiator) - the smallest structural element radiator battery.
Typically, a hollow cast iron or aluminum dvutrubchatuyu structure ribbed to increase thermal radiation and convection methods.
radiator section heating are interconnected by means of a battery radiator nipples, inlet and outlet coolant (steam or hot water) was made through vvornutye coupling, the extra (unused) holes muted threaded plugs which sometimes screwed tap for draining air from the heating system. Coating of the assembled battery is performed, as a rule, after the assembly.
Calculator number of sections in the radiators
Online calculator for calculating the necessary number of radiator sections for heating a predetermined space of known emissivity
The formula for calculating the number of radiator sections
- N - number of radiator sections;
- S - area of the room;
- t - number of heat for room heating;
- w - window coefficient
- Normal glazing - 1.1;
- Plastic (double glazing) - 1;
- h - the height of ceilings coefficient;
- up to 2.7 meters - 1;
- from 2.7 to 3.5 meters - 1.1;
- r - ratio room accommodation:
- not corner - 1;
- corner - 1.
The required amount of heating for the room (t) is calculated by multiplying the square room 100 watts. That is, for the heating room 18 m 2 must heat 18 * 100 = 1800 watts or 1.8 kW
Synonyms: radiator, heating, heat, battery, sections of the radiator, radiator.
- welcome guest
where the temperature keeping heaters? the passport to the radiator is indicated at which it gives heat mode nameplate capacity, and the heating system may be calculated by other parameters, such as I not comfortable with the heat sink temperature of 90 degrees, can be burned
How to calculate the number of radiator sections
There are several methods, but their essence is one to calculate the number of radiators: learn the maximum heat loss from the room, and then calculate the number of radiators required for their compensation.
calculation methods are different. The most simple give approximate results. However, they can be used if the standard rooms, or apply ratios, which allow to take into account the existing "non-standard" conditions of each particular room (corner room, a balcony, a window in the wall, etc.). There are more complicated calculation formulas. But in fact these are the same factors, only collected in one formula.
There is another method. It determines the actual loss. A special device - the thermal imager - determines the actual heat loss. And on the basis of these data, the radiators as needed to compensate for them. What else is good this method, it's the fact that the picture of the thermal imager can see exactly where it's warm out most actively. This can be a marriage in work or in building materials, cracks, etc. So at the same time, you can rectify the situation.
The calculation depends on the radiator heat loss and placing the rated output sections
Calculation radiators area
The easiest way. Calculate the required amount of heat for heating, based on the area of the room in which the radiator will be placed. The area of each room, you know, and the heat requirement can be determined by the building regulations SNiP:
- for the average climatic strip for heating 1m 2 of dwelling required 60-100Vt;
- for areas above 60 150-200Vt required.
Based on these standards, we can calculate how much heat will require your room. If the apartment / house are average climatic zone for heating area 16m 2, 1600w require heat (16 * 100 = 1600). Since norms are average, but the weather does not spoil perseverance, we believe that you want to 100W. Although, if you live in the south of the temperate climate zone and winter you soft, count of 60W.
Calculation of radiators can be made according to SNIP norms
power reserve needed for heating, but not very large increase in the number of required power increases the number of radiators. The more heat sinks, the more the coolant in the system. If those who are connected to the central heating is not critical, then, for those who have planned costs or individual heating, a large volume of the system is large (extra) costs for heating the coolant, and a large inertia of the system (less accurately to the desired temperature). And the question arises: "Why pay more?"
Calculating the need for a warm location, we can find out how many sections required. Each of the heating devices may allocate a certain amount of heat, which is indicated in the passport. Take the found the demand for heat and power is divided by the radiator. Result - required number of sections, to compensate for losses.
We count the number of radiators to the same premises. We have determined that you want to select 1600W. Let the power of a 170W unit. Obtained by 1600/170 = 9,411sht. It can be rounded up or down to your discretion. In less can be rounded, for example, in the kitchen - there were plenty of other heat sources, or in a large - better in a room with a balcony, a large window or in the corner room.
The system is simple, but the shortcomings are obvious: the ceiling height may be different, the material of the walls, windows, insulation, and even a number of factors not taken into account. So that the calculation of the number of radiator sections SNIP - indicative. For accurate results you need to make adjustments.
How to calculate the radiator section in terms of space
With this calculation takes into account not only the area but also the height of the ceilings, because heat need all the air in the room. So this approach is justified. And in this case, the technique is similar. Determine the volume of the room, and then according to the standards you know how much you need to heat its heating:
- in the panel house for heating cubic meter of air is required 41Vt;
- in a brick house on a 3 m - 34W.
Heat necessary to the entire volume of air in the room because correctly count the number of heat sinks in terms of
We calculate all for the same premises of 16m 2, and compare the results. Let the height of 2.7m ceilings. Size: 16 * 2.7 = 43,2m 3.
Then we count for options in the panel and brick house:
- The pre-fabricated house. The required heat for heating 43,2m 3 * 41B = 1771,2Vt. If you take all the same section 170W power, we obtain 1771Vt / 170W = 10,418sht (11sht).
- In a brick house. Heat necessary to 43,2m 3 * 34W = 1468,8Vt. We believe radiators: 1468,8Vt / 170W = 8,64sht (9sht).
As you can see, the difference is quite large, and 11sht 9sht. Moreover, when calculating the square mean value received (if rounding in the same direction) - 10pc.
In order to obtain a more accurate calculation should take into account as many factors that reduce or increase the heat loss. This is something of what to do with the walls and how well they are insulated, as far as the large windows, and what they glazing, as the walls of the room facing the street, etc. To do this, there are factors that need to multiply the values found for the heat loss of the room.
The amount depends on the radiator heat loss
Window represent 15% to 35% of heat losses. Specific figure depends on the size of the window and on how well it is insulated. Because there are two relevant factor:
To account for losses wall material is important, the degree of insulation, the number of walls facing the street. Here the coefficients for these factors.
- brick wall thickness of two bricks are the norm - 1.0
- insufficient (offline) - 1.27
- good - 0.8
The presence of external walls:
The magnitude of heat influences heated or no room at the top. If top inhabited heated room (second floor of the house, the other flat, etc.), reduces the coefficient of - 0.7 when heated loft - 0.9. It is considered that an unheated attic does not affect the temperature and (factor 1.0).
It is necessary to take into account the features of premises and climate in order to properly calculate the amount of radiator sections
If the calculation was carried out by area and ceiling height precarious (for receiving standard height 2.7 m), then using a proportional increase / decrease by a factor. It is believed it easily. To this end, the real height of the ceiling in the room to divide the 2.7 m standard. You obtain the desired ratio.
We calculate an example: let the height of 3.0m ceilings. We obtain 3.0 m / 2.7 m = 1.1. So the number of sections of the radiator, which is calculated on the area for the room to be multiplied by 1.1.
All these rules and rates determined for the apartments. To account for heat loss through the roof of the house and a basement / foundation, the need to increase output by 50%, ie, the ratio of private house 1.5.
You can make adjustments depending on the average temperature in winter:
After making all the necessary adjustments to get more accurate quantity required for heating the room radiators considering space parameters. But that's not all the criteria that influence the thermal radiation power. There are technical subtleties, which describe below.
Calculation of different types of radiators
If you are going to put sectional standard sized radiators (with an axial length of 50 cm in height) and have chosen the material, model and the right size, no problems with the calculation of their number should not be. Most reputable firms that supply good heating equipment, the site contains the technical data of all modifications, which include thermal and power. If power is not available, and the flow is then converted to power simply, coolant flow rate of 1 l / min is approximately equal to a power of 1 kW (1000 W).
The axial distance of the radiator is determined by the height between the centers of the holes for the supply / exhaust fluid.
To make life easier for customers, many sites install a specially designed calculator program. Then, the calculation section radiators is reduced to making data for your room in the appropriate fields. And at the exit, you have the finished result: the number of sections of the model in pieces.
The axial distance defined between centers of coolant apertures
But if you just pretend to be until the options, it is worth considering that the radiators of the same size made of different materials have different thermal capacity. Methods of calculating the number of sections bimetallic radiator calculation of aluminum, steel or cast iron is no different. It can only be different thermal capacity of one section.
To read it easier, it has averaged data, which you can navigate. For a radiator section with an axial length of 50cm capacity values are taken:
If you are still only pretends to which material to choose, you can use the data. For clarity, we present the simplest calculation of bimetallic radiator sections, which takes into account only the area of the room.
When determining the number of heating devices of the bimetal standard size (50 cm spacing) it is assumed that one section can heat a 1.8 m 2 area. Then in the space 16m 2 need: 16m 2 / 1,8 2 = 8,88sht. Rounding - Need 9 sections.
Similarly, we consider for cast iron or steel barateri. We need only the rules:
This data sections with center distance of 50cm. Today on sale there are models with very different heights from 60cm to 20cm, and even lower. 20cm model and referred to below as fillets. Naturally, their power is different from the standard, and if you are planning to use "non-standard", will have to make adjustments. Or search nameplate data, or read themselves. We presume that the thermal heat transfer device depends on its area. With the decrease in height of the device area is reduced, and, consequently, the power is reduced proportionally. That is, it is necessary to find the ratio of the selected radiator heights of the standard, and then using this factor to correct the result.
Calculation of cast iron radiators. Can be considered for the area or volume of the room
For clarity, we make calculations of aluminum radiators on the area. The room is the same: 16m 2. We count the number of sections of a standard size: 16m 2/2 m 2 = 8 pieces. But we want to use the small-size section height of 40cm. We find the ratio selected radiators to standard sizes: 50cm / 40cm = 1.25. Now adjust the quantity: 8pcs * 1.25 = 10p.
Adjustment depending on the mode of the heating system
Manufacturers radiators maximum power point in the passport data: during high-use mode - the flow temperature in the supply of 90 ° C, in the return pipe - 70 ° C (indicated by 90/70) in the room when it should be 20 ° C. However, in this modern system mode heating is very rare. medium power mode is typically used 75/65/20 or even low temperature with the parameters of 55/45/20. It is understandable that you want to adjust the calculation.
To account for the system operating mode is necessary to determine the temperature difference of the system. Temperature difference - the difference between the air temperature and heating devices. The temperature of heating devices is considered as the average between the values of flow and return.
It is necessary to take into account the features of premises and climate in order to properly calculate the amount of radiator sections
To make it clearer the calculations cast iron radiators for two modes: high temperature and low temperature, standard-size sections (50cm). The room is the same: 16m 2. One section of the iron in the high temperature mode heats 90/70/20 1.5 m 2. Because we need to 16m 2/2 = 1.5 m 10,6sht. Rounding - 11sht. The system is planned to use low-temperature regime of 55/45/20. Now we find the temperature difference for each of the systems:
- high temperature 90/70 / 20- (90 + 70) / 2-20 = 60 ° C;
- low temperature 55/45/20 - (55 + 45) / 2-20 = 30 ° C
That is, if you use a low-temperature operation, it will take twice as many sections to provide heat to the room. For our example at room 16m 2 requires section 22 cast iron radiators. It gets more battery. This, incidentally, one of the reasons why this type of heaters is not recommended to be used in networks with low temperatures.
In such a calculation can take into account the desired temperature. If you want to in the room was 20 ° C and, for example, 25 ° C simply calculate the thermal head for this case and find the desired ratio. We do the calculation for all of the same cast iron radiators: 90/70/25 parameters are obtained. We believe this temperature difference to the case (90 + 70) / 2-25 = 55 C. Now we find the ratio of C 60 / C 55 = 1.1. To maintain the temperature at 25 ° C is necessary 11sht * 1.1 = 12,1sht.
Dependence of power radiator connectivity and location
In addition to all parameters described above radiator heat dissipation changes depending on the connection type. The best is the diagonal connection with supply from above, in which case the thermal power loss is not. The biggest losses are for a side connection - 22%. All the others - average performance. About the magnitude of losses as a percentage indicated in the figure.
Heat losses in the radiators depending on the connection
Reduced the actual capacity of the radiator and in the presence of bandstop elements. For example, if the top is hanging sill heat falls to 7-8%, if it is not completely covers the radiator, the loss of 3-5%. When installing the mesh screen, which does not reach the floor, the losses are about the same as in the case of the hanging sill: 7-8%. But if the screen closes completely the entire heating unit, its heat emission is reduced by 20-25%.
The amount of heat depends on the installation
The amount of heat depends on the installation location
Quantification of radiators for pipe systems
There is another very important point: above all valid for a two-pipe heating system, when the input of each of the radiators enters the coolant with the same temperature. Single-pipe system is considered much more difficult: there on every subsequent heating water enters the unit more cold. And if you want to calculate the number of radiators for one-pipe system, you need to recalculate the temperature every time, and it is difficult and long. Which exit? One of the possibilities - to determine the capacity of the radiators for two-pipe system, and then in proportion to the heat output fall to add sections to increase battery heat in general.
In the one-pipe system water to each radiator receives more cold
Here is an example. The diagram shows the one-pipe heating system with six radiators. Number of batteries specified for a two pipe routing. Now you need to make an adjustment. For the first heater, everything remains the same. A second input has a lower coolant temperature. We determine the% power reduction and increase the value of a corresponding number of sections. In the picture turns out: 15kW-12kW 3kW =. We find percentages: the temperature drop is 20%. Accordingly, to compensate for the increasing number of radiators if needed 8pcs to be 20% more - 9 or 10 pieces. Here also is useful to you the knowledge of premises: if the bedroom or children's, rounded up, if the living room or other similar space, rounded down. Taking into account the location of Orientation: in the northern rounded, in the southern - in less.
The pipe systems need to located further along the branch radiators add section
This method is obviously not perfect: it turns out that the last branch in the battery would have to have a huge size: according to the scheme on its input is a heat transfer fluid with a specific heat equal to its power, and remove 100% in practice impossible. Because usually when determining boiler output pipe systems for taking some margin, set valves and radiators connected via the bypass to the heat transfer can be adjusted, and thus compensate for the temperature drop of coolant. It follows from this one: the number and / or size of the radiator in one-pipe system needs to be increased, and the distance from the beginning of the branch put more sections.
The approximate calculation of the number of radiator sections is simple and fast. But refinement, depending on all the features of buildings, size, type of connection and location demands attention and time. But you will be able to accurately determine the number of heaters to create a comfortable atmosphere in the winter.
Please name the regulations for the values of 100 W / m² and 41 W / m for bringing formal complaints. Thank you.
Thank you, it's understandable. But I'm the same skaybaya managers say that we should not forget that the calculation must be carried out taking into account the coefficient. amendments. Because - not seen radiators, which are pdfniku give power. It is necessary to take into account the actual conditions of the calculation. I agree - taken with a margin of 1-2 in the section of the radiator. Heat the bones do not ache, as they say