- 1 Types and characteristics of lamps for street and residential lighting
- 2 Lamps and street lighting lamps: choose the best option
- 3 Kinds of lanterns, lamps and street lighting lamps
- 3.1 Basic requirements for street lighting lamps
- 3.2 A variety of lighting products
- 3.3 The main criteria for the selection of lighting devices
Types and characteristics of lamps for street and residential lighting
Street lighting has long ceased to be a novelty for the layman. Lights mounted on poles, overpasses and masts have become a necessity, due to which increases the visibility on the street at night and in the evening. But if you had the same type commonly used lamps, lighting fixtures today affect species diversity and great potential.
Application of new technologies in the production of expanded opportunities abroad. Focusing on the characteristics given, can now be equipped with roadside and pavement area, as well as to use lighting for the installation of fountains, sculptures, facades of buildings and billboards.
Limited choice long ago gave way to the variety of materials that are used when creating the lighting for the streets. At the moment it may be options such as steel, plastic, glass, forging, as well as various combinations of the above. Pleasing and stylistic solutions of modern light sources. On the shelves you can find original products, made in the style of hi-tech, modern, baroque, classical.
1. Incandescent Light Bulbs. They operate on the principle of heating a tungsten filament in an inert gas at a high temperature. Products are of large amounts of heat and power, but are the most expensive energy devices currently existing. A variety of bulbs are halogen devices. The presence of halogen vapor (buffer gas) increases the service life of up to 4 times. When used in street lighting, halogen lamps often set in projectors. 2. Fluorescent. Favorably with those of more light output and long-life bulbs (works up to 10 times longer). Ballasts (electronic model) presented by modern industry, able to work without flickering and noise effect. The principle of operation of lamps is the reaction of the mercury vapor and electric current, which cause the occurrence of UV radiation. Through the use of the phosphor coating the interior surface of the device, ultraviolet light is absorbed to form a glow. Light color varies depending on the composition of the active coating. At arrangement of street lighting uses high-pressure lamps. Models low pressure recommended for use in home gardens. Currently, fluorescent lamps recognized as the most reliable and cost-effective lighting option.
3. Discharge. The establishment of such devices is used, hydrogen, natural gas, methane or ethylene. The process work is the combustion of fuel, forming an electrical discharge. These products are characterized by high light output and can be used for decorative objects. Service life of up to 20 000 hours. At the moment the man in the street available sodium, metal halide and mercury varieties HID bulbs. 4. Metal. Being a kind of discharge lamps, halides products contain special additives. Such an arrangement allows the use of light bulbs for illumination of large outdoor spaces, as well as to find the optimal spectral characteristics. Metal halide lamps are an excellent solution for creating architectural, scenic and sports lighting. The most popular type of the lamps are single-ended model, the power which can reach up to 2000 watts. No less popular are soffit analogues, power up to 150 watts. The demand for devices due to the possibility to receive the light as close as possible to the sun (no blue luminescence).
5. Sodium. Products operate on the principle of interaction of the sodium vapor forming a gas discharge. The manufacturing process involves the use of special flasks borosilicate glass. Their use allows to protect the instrument from temperature effects, and create optimal conditions for work at any time of the year. Models have low spectral characteristics and can only be used for street lighting. 6. Xenon. Bulbs of this type operate through the formation of electric arcs between two electrodes disposed in a sealed flask. The inert gas can be used a pair of metals, and sodium and mercury salts. The emission spectrum of xenon lamps depends on the elements constituting the design temperature and pressure.
7. Mercury. The devices operate on the principle of formation of the discharge in mercury vapor. The most common area of application is medicine, but are sometimes used for street lighting. Also, products of this type can be used in agriculture and industry. For these categories are considered optimum for this special purpose lamp. With regards to street lighting, suitable for this purpose general-purpose device. The main disadvantages of the mercury lamps can be called high pressure during operation and the presence in its composition of harmful mercury vapor. The advantage of using devices is efficiency when covering large areas.
8. Induction. Products of this type are discharge tubes. The principle of operation of electrodeless lamps is plasma formation during the inert gas ionization high-frequency magnetic field. operation of the device provides an inductor, located near the gas cylinder tube. The lack of direct contact between the plasma and the electrode causes an increase in service life and greater stability parameters of the product. 9. LED. Bulbs of this type are the pinnacle of artificial lighting. They have low power consumption, long service life and a full environmental safety. Experts say that in the next decade LED lamps completely replace a filament of market, discharge and fluorescent light sources. There is another kind of lighting for streets, prove not only effective, but also practical. Lamps powered by solar batteries, allocated a separate class, recognized as one of the best solutions for lighting gardens areas and large-scale street lighting landscape.
Devices of this type are convenient alternatively all the above species lamps. Structural features of the models make it possible to cover the space without the need for electricity. In civilized countries, are increasingly lamp Solar replace older counterparts for lighting parks, alleys and driveways.
Lamps and street lighting lamps: choose the best option
Street lighting has in our lives of great importance. Lamps mounted on masts, poles, and overpasses, increase optical visibility in the dark. Light is needed at both the wide streets of the metropolis and in the courtyards of small settlements. And if earlier as a night guard, pointing the way, the same used on the form and method of dissemination of roadside lights, today street lighting fixtures striking external diversity and breadth of application. The zone of influence is not limited to roads and pavements - sculptures, fountains, billboards, building facades become active participants in a simple, but very spectacular process of transformation of the surrounding space look.
Video: Street Lighting Fixtures on giving ↑
What are the best lamps for street lighting ↑
The first system of street lighting was established in Amsterdam in the XVII century thanks to the efforts of fire brigades - Jan van der Heijden. Ambitious project involves the installation of more than 2500 lanterns designed by them without any help. These oil lamps were used until 1840.
Successful experience in a hurry to learn from other cities. So in 1807 in London, there are gas street lamps that were lit at dusk lamplighters. In Moscow, began to illuminate the streets even earlier - to 1730.
The end of the XIX century was the beginning of a new era, where reigned electric lamps. In XX century, they are replaced by gas-discharge lamps used to this day.
Outdoor lighting is radically different from the internal design, installation method and specifications. Other priorities determined selection features street lamps. For example, color indicators that are extremely important when buying lighting fixtures for buildings, in this case, have no significance. At the forefront is the property as a power (light output).
Light output - light flux related to its capacity, in other words - efficiency. Typically, the LED street lamps are (up to 200 lm / W) or HID (85-150 lm / W).
period - another indicator that deserves attention. Due to the fact that the replacement of street lighting - consuming activity, requires the use of specialized equipment, long-term "life" - a significant plus, which are required to have outdoor installation.
street lighting lights should be chosen, adhering to the following criteria:
- climatic characteristics of the area;
- traffic intensity in the illuminated region;
- taking into account the negative impact of the external environment;
- the required light intensity of certain areas;
- proper installation.
Operation of luminaires takes place under conditions of high humidity and temperature changes, so note the level of protection (IP). Degree of protection indicates the impossibility of penetration of dust into the lamp, moisture, foreign bodies.
To cover lamps with electrical equipment necessary degree of protection equal to 23 IP, to cover with the lamp - 54 IP.
Protection level is indicated in a special table in the passport lamp. The value consists of two numbers:
- The first (1-6) indicates the degree of protection against ingress of solids into the housing;
- second (1-8) demonstrated protection against moisture.
The types of street lamps and lanterns ↑
Street lamps are divided into 2 types: shared and dedicated. The latter are used in the navy, the army, with the design of open air concerts. This includes search (navy, army), signal (military ships, lighthouses) and spetseffektnye searchlights (scenic lighting, laser show). We are interested in the first type - a general-purpose floodlights, which are indispensable for the lighting of streets, buildings, playgrounds etc. Such equipment is also called incandescent flood light, because its main function - to maintain the constancy of the illumination area, contributing to the visual separation of the object from the background and the environment.
Classification of street lights is quite extensive. According to the principle of light distribution, they are divided into symmetrical and circularly. Symmetrical in turn are subdivided into odnoploskostnaya and two-plane.
There is a separation based on the numerical value of the luminous intensity angle of the light flux and CIL (luminous intensity curves), but the most common classification is based on the type of lamp used.
Halogen street lamps ↑
Perfectly convey color and create the illusion of sunlight - directional point or soft shadowless. Used to illuminate the bridges, buildings, advertising signs. According to the principle of the halogen lamps look like classic incandescent lamps only in the buffer gas is added fluorine, bromine, iodine and other halogens which extend the "life" 2 times.
Currently available halogen lamps of different capacity - from 3 to 20,000 watts.
Despite the fact that such gas-discharge light sources are not, high gloss and color light output make it possible to use them in the most modern models of lighting products. The advantages include the ability to adjust power by dimmers, high security optical compartments and the ability to operate in any environment.
The light source gas-discharge lamps perform giving cold glare. This is ideal for lighting exhibition centers, shopping malls, open spaces. The main advantage - immunity to surges.
It is necessary to mention the other advantages: the admissibility of strengthening technical priorities with a strong body, long life, wide range of color temperatures.
The color temperature of metal halide floodlights varies from 3,000 to 20,000 K. The highest rates are close to the spectrum of natural light.
Characterized by a low color rendering, however, exhibit yellow color spectrum. Most often they are used in landscape design. Fixtures equipped with high-pressure sodium lamps whose operation is based on radiation of sodium vapors in the flask by applying electric discharge.
Sodium energy-saving lamps for street lighting with low color rendering differ quite a high luminous efficiency. This means that these projectors form the yellow light field, leveling the other colors. But decent service life (30 000 hours) puts sodium floodlights in the category of very unpretentious and economical equipment for street lighting.
LED lights Outdoor lighting ↑
Characterized by perfect color reproduction and high contrast. The main advantages - increased service life, cost-effectiveness, high resistance to mechanical stress. Scope of LED street lamps is broad: designers use them in landscaping, interior design, architectural lighting.
Power LED spotlight is 15-30 W, service life - 100,000 hours.
To implement various kinds of lighting a single spotlight or the group can be used, depending on the objectives pursued. So for large building lighting lamps installed preferably on the perimeter at even intervals, whereas only one monument illumination lamp. LED spotlights can create interesting effects in outdoor lighting.
Monochrome version provides bright, uniform illumination of the object. Full color - is indispensable to create original lighting effects, controlled automatically.
Video: Street lamps lighting your own hands ↑
Video: LED lamps and fixtures Nord ↑
These are the main types of street lights, the use of which not only provides a comfortable movement on the dark city, but also gives the individual the surrounding landscape and memorable appearance.
Kinds of lanterns, lamps and street lighting lamps
Contemporary street lighting in a person's life is very important. Lamps that are mounted on poles, mast, on overpasses significantly increase the overall optical visibility, which is especially important at night. A sufficient amount of light and lamps must be on the huge streets of major cities and in the courts of the relatively small area of settlements.
Previously, as an effective street lighting used the same method for the propagation of light and the external lights mean. Now the street lighting is varied and versatile, and types of street lighting and lighting account for more than a dozen types of different sizes and applications used in these lamps. The territory of the propagation of light from the lamps did not only limited to sidewalks. At the moment they are used for aesthetic lighting of such facilities of a modern city, such as:
- The facade of the buildings and structures;
Modern lamps for street lighting, have become real active participants in a simple, but fairly effective process associated with the transformation of general urban space.
Basic requirements for street lighting lamps
Outdoor lighting is different from applicable in the premises of the technical characteristics of the installation method, as well as the external design decisions. These priorities determine the main characteristics selecting modern street lamps. For example, unlike the main criterion - the color of which is taken into account when buying lamps for the room, at the choice of street lamps, they do not matter, but the power.
Another, no less important indicator that deserves special attention is the life of the lamps. The importance of this factor is based on the fact that the implementation of the replacement of street lighting lamps is rather time-consuming occupation. It requires the use of special equipment and machinery. The possibility of long-term use of the light source is an advantage, which simply must have all external lighting installations.
A variety of lighting products
Offers modern manufacturers of street lighting lamps are divided into two main categories - specialized and general applications. The former are intended for use in the navy, in the process of registration of concerts, there are special warning lights.
Closer attention should be general purpose street lights that are indispensable as the illumination of buildings and structures, as well as streets and sports grounds. Equipment of this kind is also called flood lighting lamps, since their main function is to the continued support of the illumination area, which contributes to the qualitative separation of an object from the surrounding objects on a visual level.
Classification of street lamps on the types and is quite extensive. The process is carried out based on the following criteria:
- on the type of caps;
- on the principle of light scattering, there are circularly symmetric and simple;
- symmetric can be divided into one-and two-plane;
- by numerical expression of force produced by the light;
- the angle of the light flux;
- main classification is based on the destination.
More detail below will describe the main types and types of modern street lighting lamps.
These devices differ in that perfectly captures the light color shade, as well as being able to create a certain illusion of natural sunlight, which can be directed gently without leaving a shadow or a bright dot. Street lamps, which belong to the category of halogen, are composed of mercury vapor with small amounts of metals. This enables a qualitatively correct all the spectral properties of the device.
By type of bases they can be classified as single-ended, having a capacity of from 130 to 2000 watts. The devices produce light close to daylight, that is, there is no admixture of blue.
Discharge lamps for street lighting
In these devices the light source is a combustion process much gaseous fuel, which can cause the formation of a fairly strong electric discharge. To these substances include methane, hydrogen or a conventional natural gas.
There are some advantages of these devices:
- High efficiency, which contributes to the growth of their popularity for street lighting.
- Service life can reach 20 thousand hours, which ensures infrequent replacement of lighting sources.
- High quality light transmission allows their use attractive for decorative illumination.
- There are different types of caps.
Modern mercury devices
They operate on the basis of the appearance of gas discharge, which is present in the mercury vapor. During operation of these devices are heated quickly enough, because require special high temperature resistant wire.
The resulting gas discharge, by which the operating device is able to create high quality ultraviolet radiation is the main source of white color. The main advantage of these products is their cost-effectiveness, thanks to these types of devices is advantageous to use for lighting large areas.
Lamps of this type have built-arc lamps, wherein the main light source is an electric arc. Inside the device is a pair of metals, the inert gas and sodium and mercury salts.
On the basis of such internal content, temperature and pressure, radiation from a lamp is different spectrum. A feature of the light source is that the gas present inside the lamp seriously enriched ions, and then proceeds into the plasma.
These lamps are very popular, as have high rates of heat transfer and able to last for about 10 times more than usual. Products equipped with an electronic basis, which allows them to operate without noise and flicker.
This is the most reliable and high quality types of lamps at the moment. High-pressure devices are used for effective illumination of city streets, and low pressure for the lighting of private household plots.
Devices are bezelektronnye discharge lighting devices with different types of caps, in which special light source is a plasma. It is formed during the ionization of the gas by the high frequency magnetic field.
The fact that no direct contact with the plasma electrode, the life of the light source significantly increases, overall stability parameters.
Innovative LED lamp
These types of devices and types differ by the type of foundation and have excellent light transmission, and a pretty big contrast. The main advantages are:
- a sufficiently high service life;
- perfect resistance to various mechanical influences;
- broad scope of application.
Modern LED lamps can be used not only as general lighting, but also for interior design, landscape and design of streets and buildings.
As for the amount used in lighting devices, then it all depends on the goal. You can use a single spotlight, and it is possible the whole group. To illuminate the building should use several devices by setting them at regular intervals, a large area. When it comes to lighting of the monument, it will be enough one lamp.
Highlighting the house with LED lighting
This is most common at the moment types of light sources. Their application not only ensures the most comfortable travel through the city streets, but give the landscape a memorable and strictly personal appearance.
The main criteria for the selection of lighting devices
Kinds of light sources for illumination of city streets need to choose strictly on the basis of certain criteria:
- climatic features;
- degree of protection;
- it is important to consider all the negative influences of the world;
- the required light intensity;
- mounting and installation characteristics.
The choice of the device should be based on set goals, set by the service dealing with lighting and design property of city streets.
Perhaps you would be interested
Add a comment cancel reply
Most visited entries
- Alexander to record Blinking LED lamp switched off and the lights on and how to fix it
- Alexander to record Dimmer for LED lamps 220: features of the work and connect with their own hands
- Emma to write How to choose a sofa
- Gray to record Blinking LED lamp switched off and the lights on and how to fix it
Copying of materials is permitted only with an indication of the original source