- 1 Varieties of lighting lamps
- 2 Lighting lamps: types, characteristics, purpose
- 3 All kinds of household electric lamps lighting
Varieties of lighting lamps
The consumer market offers today lighting lamps various cost. However, their consumer and technological properties also differ significantly from each other.
There are several types of lighting lamps:
- - incandescent lamps;
- - fluorescent lamps;
- - halogen lamps;
- - LED lights.
Consider each of the species in order to identify the main consumer and technological features.
Quite a long time, incandescent absolutely had no competition in the market. The shape of incandescent bulbs may be different, as well as their power, minimum power is 15 watts, while the maximum - 300 watts.
Modern incandescent lamps are represented by two species: krypton and coiled-coil. The krypton filament used inert gas is krypton. Their thickness varies from 40 to 100 watts. Thus krypton bulb unlike normal have higher luminous efficiency.
Increased luminous efficiency and have a coiled-coil lamp giving light due to the complex arcuate tungsten filament. The surface of the filament lamps can be transparent, opalescent or mirror.
Despite the fact that the light flux of lamps frosted less (with little matting - 3%, in milk - 30%), they are popular, mainly because of the scattered light which is pleasing to the visual perception. Luminous flux lamps coated with a reflective layer sufficiently high.
Widespread recently received fluorescent lamp of different power (from 8 to 80 W). Their emission occurs due to the phosphors, which acts on the ultraviolet radiation of the gas discharge. Lamps of this type give a soft, diffused light.
Compared with incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps efficiency is much higher, and the light output for the same power more than 7-8 times. The big difference is observed in the life cycle.
In fluorescent lamps it is 10-20 times longer than incandescent bulbs. A disadvantage of the fluorescent lamp is sensitive to temperature and light flicker.
Lamps of this type are almost 100% brighter than conventional incandescent bulbs. They have different shapes and types, depending on this light can be diffused or be concentrated beam.
Due to this diversity halogen light bulbs, giving beautiful saturated colors, often used in the design solutions. Using their bright light and excellent color rendition makes it easy to experiment with lighting, creating unique effects.
Halogen light is used for both general lighting and backlighting for detail and highlight certain areas of the living space.
Variety of halogen lamps is divided into:
- - suspended;
- - point (recessed in false ceiling);
- - wall;
- - embedded in furniture, walls;
- - rotating (direction of the light is adjusted by rotating the lamp holder);
- - fixed model.
Special attention to modern designers pay spotlights "on a crystal" (glass chain crystals are suspended on a steel construction) and fixtures "starry sky" (a set of miniature lamps resembles a cluster of stars) to transform the great room, bringing in its unique design accents.
Spotlights in modern apartments are especially popular.
To date fixtures that use LEDs, also widespread. Their key feature is the low power consumption, which certainly will appeal to every owner.
The advantages of LED lights can also be considered high luminous efficiency and long service life. In recent years the Russian market increased by more autonomous and lamps with LEDs powered by solar batteries and accumulators.
The inclusion of such lamps is done automatically at dusk, and they are recharged by sunlight during the daylight hours. These lamps can be subjected to both low (-30) and high (up to 50) temperatures without breaking performance.
Lighting lamps: types, characteristics, purpose
Life of modern man is inconceivable without the use of electricity. To date, the bulk of the light sources - power. About 15% of the total amount of generated electricity is consumed lighting fixtures. To reduce power consumption, increase the light output and extend the life of the light source, it is necessary to use the most economical sources of light, gradually abandoning older and unnecessarily energy-intensive counterparts.
Consider the conventional classification. On the basis of the principles of electrical appliances in terms of lighting the following types of light bulbs: incandescent lamps, including halogen lamps and discharge lamps as well as LED, which over the past few years are becoming increasingly popular.
It is worth noting that the bulbs are different in shape, size, amount of power consumed and heat transfer-of-life value. So, consider lamps electric lighting in more detail and determine the advantages and disadvantages of each type.
Which of the lamps is the cheap and easy to operate? This is all familiar incandescent lighting - a veteran in many household appliances. Low price and ease of use make them popular for decades. They are not afraid of changes in temperature, they instantly turn on and contain no hazardous mercury vapors. Produce varying lamp power of 25 to 150 watts. However, the number of working hours in such lamps is low, only 1000 and the power consumption is much higher than the energy-efficient counterparts. Over time, on account of the work of the vapor lamp lens becomes cloudy and lose brightness. Because they are not profitable, and eventually give them up. For example, in many European countries, their production and sale of discontinued and prohibited by law.
Have been applied and reflector bulb. They are much like incandescent bulbs, the only difference - the silvered surface. Use it to create a directional light to a certain point, for example, in the window or a billboard. Mark them R50, R63, and R80, where the number indicates the diameter. They are easy to use, provided with a threaded socket of E14 or E27 standard sizes.
As it is known, for lighting needs about 15% of all electricity generated. Agree, it's a lot. To reduce this figure to be a shift to more fuel-efficient light sources. Under current law, in 2014 the power of light bulbs should not exceed 25 watts. In place of the usual incandescent lamp energy saving fluorescent came that consume five times less energy while lighting level remains the same. What are they? This glass bulb is white, coated on the inside with phosphor and contains an inert gas with a small amount of mercury vapor. collisions between electrons and mercury vapor provides ultraviolet radiation, and it, in turn, due to the phosphor is converted into light, which we are accustomed to seeing. The service life of these lamps - for about a year, or 10,000 hours of continuous operation. But lighting lamps of this type have a major drawback: they contain mercury. Therefore, they require very careful use and disposal of special conditions. They can not drop or just throw in the trash - because, as you know, mercury vapor, even in small quantities is very dangerous. In addition, getting into the air, they do not dissolve, and remain stuck, poisoning everything. Thus, the amount of mercury vapor from a broken lamp about 50 mg to 3, with an acceptable level of vapor concentration of 0.01 mg / m 3.
Another disadvantage of such lamps: the color of some of them is unpleasant to the eyes, lighting them quite aggressive. There is a solution: when selecting lamps to consider its color temperature. It is measured in Kelvin (K). So, more soft, warm shade give the lamp marked 2700K - 3000K, that this figure is the most optimal for the human eye when working indoors as the most close to natural sunlight.
The use of fluorescent lamps
Among the huge amount of electric there are those whose main task - to run continuously for many hours. They are used in rooms of a certain type: hospitals, supermarkets, warehouses, offices. It is believed that most of the light close to natural, hence the name: Fluorescent lighting.
Lamps produced in the form of an elongated glass tube with contact electrodes at the edges. They have been used in the home. They are used as the main source of light on the ceiling or mounted on the wall as an extra. Very convenient, for example, in the kitchen, on the work surface when you need to accent lighting or as decorative lighting in niches, under shelves and pictures, for lighting aquariums, or heating of indoor plants during the cold season. they work on a typical network and require no special power converters. Such lamps are considered to be energy-efficient, as compared to an incandescent lamp, the old samples are virtually no heat, consume up to 10 times less energy, and the exploitation of their time is about 10,000 hours of continuous operation. But there is a caveat: this coverage is usually used indoors at a temperature of 15-25 degrees. At lower temperatures, they simply will not work. In addition to white and yellow, these lamps can emit other colors: blue, red, green, blue, ultraviolet. The choice of color depends on the purpose and application.
To date, not used one type of bulbs that consume twice less energy than their predecessors. These lamps belong to the class energy efficient. This halogen light bulbs are widely used in everyday life. With its compact dimensions are ideal for use in lighting devices such as floor lamps, wall lamps, ceiling lamps with an unusual bubble, for decorative built-in light. For filling such a lamp bulb, a mixture of special gases from bromine or iodine vapors. When connected to the network filament (tungsten spiral) is heated and gives luminescence. Unlike conventional electric bulbs, here tungsten when heated does not settle on the walls of the flask, and in conjunction with gas gives a brighter luminescence and long, up to 4000 hours. Such lamps emit ultraviolet rays, which is very harmful to the eye. Therefore, high-quality bulbs have a special protective coating. They are very sensitive to voltage drops very quickly may fail.
Versatile and energy-efficient light source today are those of them who used to work in a few times less energy, while not reducing the power generated by the flow. Such as energy-saving lamps are designed for residential and office space. They are versatile and can be used in lighting devices of different types.
Characteristics of this type of light bulbs: Energy consumption is several times lower than incandescent bulbs, last up to 10 times longer, not heat, no flicker, no buzz, strong enough and does not contain hazardous components.
Among the shortcomings can be distinguished: slow heating (up to 2 minutes), operating at a temperature of not lower than 15 degrees. They can not be used outside in open luminaires.
The main advantages of LEDs
But one of the most profitable in terms of energy saving LED deemed or LED-lamp. In English the LED - light emittingdiode - «light-emitting diode." The light output of these lamps 60-100 lm / W, and the average lifespan is 30 000-50 000 hours. In this modern lighting lamps of this type are not heated and are completely safe to use. Well, if one of the bulbs burns out, it will not affect the work of the whole mechanism, it will continue to work.
Color temperature have quite varied - from soft yellow to cool white. The choice of color depends on the use of the premises and the owner's preferences. For example, the office is better to choose a bright white with a mark of 6400K, suitable natural light, is not as aggressive, 4200K for a child's room, as well for the bedroom - a little yellow tint, 2700K.
And another plus: they do not have the main disadvantage of fluorescent lamps: the buzz and flicker, and the eyes with this light very comfortable. they operate on a conventional 220 W and fitted with a standard socket E27 and E14.
The use of LEDs in the home
It is interesting that even ten years ago did not even exist such a thing as LED lamps for the home. How to choose and install them, I could tell except that an auto mechanic - because they have been used mainly on the dashboard of the car and the light. Today, the exploitation of their home has become so familiar that we do not even think about choosing between LED-lamps and old-style lamps, so the choice is obvious, and not in favor of the latter. The highlight: LED lamps current - constant, so the heating costs are minimal. Consequently, they do not heat up and as the daylight lamp, can serve for many years. Even in spite of their high cost, they are beneficial to use. By consuming less energy, these lamps can help reduce the amount of monthly payment for electricity. By the way, choosing LED light bulbs for home, should take into account this difference in power. There is one secret. You need to know the power consumed by lighting the lamp, general purpose, and divide it by 8. For example, if you change the conventional lamp 100 watts, then 100: 8 = 12.5. So you need a LED lamp power of 12 watts.
Another no less important component - such light fixtures have different temperature. From this figure it depends on how comfortable lighting will give LED lighting lamp in the room. Of the existing shades of white light is the optimal hue in the range of 2600-3200 K and 3700-4200 K. This light is soft, the most close to natural sunlight and pleasing to the eye. To display 6000 gives a very cool white hue, and less than 2600 K - depressing yellow. These shades are harmful to the eye, a person gets tired quickly, you may experience headaches and impaired vision. Therefore it is very important to buy only high-quality LED lamps for the home. How to choose, tell the consultant at the store, as well as provide all the necessary quality certificates.
Like it or not, and the LED lamp is beneficial in many ways.
- It consumes several times less electricity.
- In operation, it is not heated, allowing its use with flammable materials, e.g., in the eaves, suspended ceiling. A large number of these bulbs does not overheat air in the room.
- Such lamps do not burn, but only lose their brightness, about 30% over time.
- Long service life up to 15 years.
So having an idea of what types of bulbs are knowing their main characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, you can safely go to the nearest store. But there is another important point, without which even the simple replacement of the bulb will be impossible. After all, to pick up a lamp to the lighting device, you need to know what kind of its socket. By means of the lamp cap is fastened to the cartridge and that it takes the electric current in the lamp.
For the manufacture of the cap using a metal or ceramics. A are placed inside contacts that transmit electric current to the working elements of the device. Each lighting unit is equipped with one or more cartridges for mounting lamps. It is important that the acquired cap lamp cartridge match. Otherwise it will not work.
Despite the variety of types of caps bulbs in their daily lives often use two types: threaded and pin.
Threaded socket is also called the screw. Title accurately transmits its connection method to the cartridge of the lighting device. It is screwed into light bulbs, this thread is applied on its surface. Used for marking the letter E. This type is used in many kinds of lamps in household appliances. Such caps differ in size. Thus, marking the cap, after the Latin letter E indicates the manufacturer is required diameter of the threaded connection. In everyday life use two sizes of sockets often - E14 and E27. But there are also more powerful light bulbs, for example, for street lighting. They use a socket E40. The size of the threaded connections has remained unchanged for many decades. Even now, you can easily replace the conventional light bulb burned out in an old chandelier to a more economical, light-emitting diode. The dimensions of the cap and cartridge they match exactly. But in the United States and Canada adopted other parameters. Since the voltage is 110V at them, in order to avoid the use of European-style lamps diameter of the cap is different: E12, E17, E26 and E39.
Another type of caps used in everyday life, this pin. The holder it is fixed by two metal pins. They serve as contacts that transmit electricity to the light bulb. The pins are different in diameter and the distance between them. For marking use Latin letter G, followed by digital signage is the gap between the pins. This G4 socket, G9 and G13.
Now you can safely proceed to repair. And let the redevelopment or construction of new walls can be done only to specialists, but the selection and replacement of light bulbs you can handle yourself well.
All kinds of household electric lamps lighting
Household lamps lighting - is an essential part of the electrification of all houses and apartments. Presented sale types of electric lamps allow you to create comfort in the room. All kinds of lamps have their own specifications, which can be found on this page. Correctly selected types of lighting lamps also enable to save money on your bills for the consumed electricity.
Lamps differ in the nature of light and the operating conditions. However, they have one common part - base with thread, with which they are connected to the wires in the light holder. The dimensions of the cap and the holder are strictly standardized. Information on the plinth is always on fixtures and lamps.
In a domestic environment is used lamp with three types of caps: small, medium and large, or, technically speaking, E14, E27 and E40. The numbers in the title denote the cap diameter in millimeters. The most common size of the base - E27. E14 is often called "mignon" (translated from French - "small"). E40 Cap is used for street lighting lam capacity of 300, 500 and 1000 watts.
In addition to caps which are screwed into the cartridge via threads, the different types of pin-type lamp caps. They are called G-caps. Their main types of G5, G9, 2G10, 2G11, G23 and R7s-7. G-caps are used in compact fluorescent and halogen lamps to save space. Using two or four pins lamp mounted in the lamp socket.
One of the major characteristics of the lamp - power incandescent lamps. It is always indicated by the manufacturer on the container or the basement, and the light output is dependent on it, that comes from a lamp and calculated lumens. Not to be confused with the light output of the lamp light level, which it emits: energy-saving lamp with a power of 5 W will shine better than incandescent light bulbs in 60 watts. As a rule, data on light output is nowhere recorded, so that the choice of the lamp must be guided by the advice of sellers, or use the data table "Luminous efficacy of different types of lamps."
Table "Luminous different types of lamps"
Light output denotes a 1 W power lamp gives a certain amount of lumens of light. Based on data from the table "Luminous efficacy of different types of lamps," energy-saving compact fluorescent lamp will be four - nine times more economical than an incandescent lamp. Standard lamp at 60 watts provides about 600 lumens, whereas the compact has the same meaning with power 10 - 11 watts.
Incadescent: types, characteristics, power and voltage in them
Electric incandescent lamp - the first source of electric light that appeared in the household use as early as the middle of H1H. Since then it has undergone many changes, but its principle of operation remains the same.
All types of incandescent lamps consist of a glass vacuum container, the cap, on which there are contacts and the fuse, and also the filament emitting light. Spiral filament made of tungsten alloys readily withstand operating temperature of burning + 3200 ° C. When a current is passed through the conductor of small cross section and low conductivity of the energy goes into heating conductor spiral, making one glows in visible light. To thread is not burned out instantaneously in modern lamps balloon inflated inert gas such as argon.
Despite such a simple device, there are many types of incandescent lamps, which differ in shape, size and material of manufacture of the balloon. There are also various power incandescent lamps 40 to 250 W for home use. High power light bulbs used in the industry.
For example, the decorative lamp (candle), in which the balloon has an elongated shape, styled as normal candle. As a rule, they are used in small luminaires and lamps. Glass bottles of colored lights have different colors and are used for decorative purposes. The mirror glass bulb filament portion is covered with a reflective light guide composition compact bundle. Such lamps are most commonly used in ceiling lights to direct light downward and do not cover the ceiling. Voltage incandescent sufficiently low and does not allow to efficiently convert thermal energy into a light beam. Local lighting lamps work under the voltage of 12, 24 and 36 V. They are used in flashlights, in emergency lighting and so on. d. They consume little energy and therefore give poor lighting.
Consider the characteristics of incandescent lamps that will help you select the appropriate view. LON still popular, despite some shortcomings. Chief among them is a very low efficiency - no more than 2-3% of the energy consumed. All the rest is spent on heat generation. The second drawback is that LON unsafe to fire point of view. For example, an ordinary paper, if put in a 100 W light bulb, breaks after about 20 minutes. LON may not be operated in small lampshades made of plastic or wood. Furthermore, these lamps are short-lived. Their service life is approximately 500-1000 h The advantages include low cost and ease of installation:. BOSOMS not require additional devices for the job.
Types of household halogen lamps
Halogen lamps have the same operating principle as incandescent bulbs. The only difference between them - the composition of the gas in the cylinder. In such lamps are admixed to the inert gas iodo or bromo. This increases the filament temperature and reduces evaporation of tungsten. That is why the life of a halogen lamp is two to three times longer than incandescent bulbs and lamps themselves are more compact.
Since the heating temperature of glass increases very significantly, household halogen lamps made of quartz material. They do not tolerate dirt on the bulb: it is not necessary to touch the unprotected hand to the tank, otherwise the lamp will burn out very quickly. There are various kinds of halogen lamps, some of them are discussed below on this page.
Linear halogen lamps are used in mobile or stationary projectors, which are often installed motion sensors. Halogen lamps with a mirror-coated are often used in embedded luminaires mounted plasterboard construction.
On the downside halogen lamps include sensitivity to voltage drops. To avoid this, you should buy a special transformer, equalization current.
Types of fluorescent lamps daylight
Types of fluorescent lamps work on the principle differ significantly from LON. Under the influence of an electric current in the glass flask such lamps are lit instead of the tungsten filament mercury vapor. gas discharge light almost indistinguishable, as emitted in the ultraviolet. Last causes the phosphor to glow, which are covered with the tube wall. That light we see. Externally, the compound and method as fluorescent lamps differ significantly from LON. Instead of threaded cartridge on both sides of the tube has two pins to be inserted into a special socket and turn it.
Types of fluorescent lamps have a low operating temperature.
These surfaces can be touched without fear. Most luminous surface creates an even diffused light. That is why these lamps are sometimes referred to as fluorescent lamps. In addition, by varying the composition of the phosphor, it is possible to change the color of light, making it more acceptable to the human eye. Expiring service fluorescent lamps are superior to incandescent bulbs up to 10 times.
However, these lamps can not be connected directly to the mains, which is associated with the physical nature of their glow. You can not just throw the two wires to the ends of the lamp and insert the plug into the socket. To enable it, use special electronic ballasts and starters, which seemed to ignite the lamp at the time of inclusion. Most of the fixtures under the fluorescent lamps are equipped with built-in mechanisms like the glow of electronic ballasts (ballast) or throttles.
Marking fluorescent lamps
Fluorescent lamps are marked as follows:
- LB - white light;
- LD - daylight;
- LE - natural light;
- LHB - cold light;
- LTB - warm light.
For alphabetic labeled fluorescent lamp, generally follow the figures: the first is the degree of color, second and third - the emission temperature. The higher the degree of color, the more natural light for the human eye. From the glow temperature depends on the light emitted from the lamp 2700 K - sverhteply white, 3000 K - Warm White, 4000 K - natural white or white, 5000 K - Cool white (day). Thus, the lamp marked LB840 will produce white light with very good color rendering and temperature 4000 K.
When the market appeared compact types of energy-saving lamps, it produced a revolution in lighting technology. The diversity of their species is very high. They differ not only in power but also in the form of discharge tubes. In addition, it was possible to eliminate the main disadvantages of fluorescent lamps - their bulky size and the inability to use conventional threaded cartridges. Now gear mounted in the lamp socket, a long tube folded into a compact spiral. Advantages of fluorescent energy-saving lamps are obvious: no need to install an electronic ballast to start using special lamps. However, like the other fluorescent lamps, it is not perfect:
- poor performance at low temperatures (at -10 ° C and below they begin to dull shine);
- long start-up time (from several seconds to several minutes);
- presence of a low-frequency hum from the electronic ballast;
- incompatibility with dimmers;
- high cost;
- intolerant of frequent switching on and off;
- presence of harmful mercury compounds in the composition (such lamps require special disposal);
- flicker by using switches with illumination indicators.
- no matter how hard manufacturers, fluorescent lights are not very similar to the natural and hurts the eyes.
Besides saving lamps with gear there are also many varieties without integrated electronic ballast. They differ in the type cap.
Arc high pressure mercury lamp (DRL) generates light by arc discharge in mercury vapor. Such lamps are run with the help of gear. They have a high light output: 1 W for 50 - 60 lumens. The drawback is the emission spectrum: the light of these lamps is cold and sharp. DRL lamps are most commonly used for street lighting luminaires of the "Cobra".
Types of household LED light bulbs for home
Household LED lamps were first developed in 1962 and since then has been gradually introducing into the market of lighting products. According to the principle of the LED bulb - is the most common semiconductor in which part of the energy during the passage of an electric current is released in the form of a discernible human eye radiation or light. Light color depends on the semiconductor material.
Such household LED lamps for home LON tenfold superior on all counts:.. Durability, light output, efficiency, durability, etc. At present the sale of various kinds of LED lamps, which are distinguished by the lighting power, performance, size, durability and other characteristics.
The only drawback - the price of which is about 100 times the price of conventional incandescent bulbs. However, work on these unusual light sources continues, and it can be expected that the cheaper the sample will be invented soon.