- 1 Finishing floors. Linoleum
- 2 What types of linoleum for the floor today on the market - their characteristics
- 3 How to choose linoleum for the apartments: characteristic species and their differences?
Finishing floors. Linoleum
In this article we will look at Finish flooring linoleum. Tell you what linoleum, what types of linoleum are. Let us compare the natural linoleum and PVC linoleum artificial and will tell about their advantages and disadvantages. The main technical characteristics of linoleum each species. Separate pukto will consider recommendations on the selection of linoleum.
What is linoleum.
Linoleum - It is a roll floor covering, which is both the basis and without it. Let out linoleum usually in the form of rolls in width from 0.5 to 4 m and a thickness of 1 to 5 mm. Sheet length is at least 3 meters, but may reach 45 m. Linoleum are unilamellar and multilamellar.
Key Features linoleum, are worth paying attention to when choosing the material:
- Thickness. The greater the thickness of linoleum, the better its heat and sound insulation characteristics, the longer he serves. However, this value does not affect the strength.
- Weight. The higher the linoleum mass per unit area (cm 2), the denser linoleum and the better its performance.
- Flammability group G1, G2 (difficultly without combustion supporting material).
- Classification is znosostoykosti- basic mechanical characteristic of linoleum - from 21 to 43.
- Thermal conductivity - from 0.33 to 0.186 W / (m * K).
- Svetostoykost- 6-8 to 8-point scale.
Besides the above basic characteristics, additional information linoleum manufacturers often depicted as icons in a technical explanation of the material. Explanation of pictograms can provide experts to sell the company. Mechanical characteristics of linoleum is selected for a particular room, which will lay linoleum. For example, you select the material for the dressing room, where there is little walk, and where little natural light, therefore, need not take coating maximum thickness, the maximum wear resistance, light resistance, and so on. N. A in the hall or kitchen need thick protective layer, high wear resistance, light resistance. The bath will need a material with high water resistance, high resistance current, etc.
- convenient and relatively easy to paving;
- requires no additional coatings after laying;
- durable - the service life of 5 to 30 years;
- linoleum covering is easy to clean;
- antistatic coating
- requires alignment the base surface (coupler);
- linear dimensions change during operation - from 0.2% to 0.8% of the original size.
Basis linoleum - jute fabric, a binder component - linseed oil, turpentine, wood flour, limestone. Linoleum produced in rolls and plate. Roll width - 2 m, thickness of linoleum - 2 mm (for general purpose Improvement) - 4 mm for rooms where many moved.
In accordance with the standard EN force in the European Union, the minimum content of the binder component (linseed oil) in natural linoleum must be 30%. Not for nothing that the name "linoleum9raquo; It comes from the Latin lenum - flax, and oleum - oil, ie linseed oil. If the content of the binder components (linseed oil) is less then a linoleum according to the standard will not be considered natural.
- This type of linoleum hard and brittle - less flexible than an artificial, so the transportation and laying it requires careful handling.
- Wear resistance class (standard EN 685): 32 - at a thickness of 2.0 mm; 34 - at a thickness of 3.2 mm; 34/43 - at a thickness of 4.0 mm.
- It has bactericidal properties (able to interfere with bacterial growth) - provides its binder component - linseed oil.
- Flammability group G1 (difficultly without combustion supporting material).
- Fats and resistant to solvents, but loses durability during prolonged exposure to alkali.
- Long service life - 25-30 years.
- In operation, there is a natural shrinkage sizes - narrowed - to 0.2%.
- Thermal conductivity coefficient of thermal conductivity of 0.33 W / (m * K).
- Strength -120 kg / cm 2.
Artificial linoleum PVC (polyvinyl chloride).
It is one of the most common. PVC linoleum is manufactured from a synthetic polymer with additives of polyvinyl chloride plasticizers, fillers, pigments.
PVC linoleum can be:
- baseless - homogeneous (there are single and multi-layer);
- the substrate - heterogeneous (fabric, synthetic nonwoven subbase and teplozvukoizoliruyuschey: fibrous, porous or needling).
- dimensions: width 1.2-2.4 m, the thickness - up to 3 mm, length - not less than 12 m;
- thickness of the protective layer (for multi-layer linoleum) - 0.1-0.35 mm;
- weight - from 1 to 2.25 kg / m 2;
- safe for health;
- lose flexibility at low temperatures (below 0 c);
- respond to high humidity (greater than 75%) change in dimensions - 0.4 ... 0.8%;
- respond to the impact of fats, oils and abrasive materials;
- lightfastness - 6-8 8-point scale;
- thermal conductivity - thermal conduction coefficient of 0.4 to 0.6 W / (m * K).
Homogeneous PVC linoleum (Groundless) - Webs homogeneous throughout the thickness, it is made by rolling. Made of PVC granules, lime and dye.
- It has spotted, speckled pattern on the entire depth of coverage.
- Thanks to the technology of production and its uniformity is less than a heterogeneous subject to wear during operation and is used in areas with heavy traffic.
- The thickness of the homogeneous coatings -1,5 - 4mm width -. 1.5-2 m thickness is selected individually for each room depending on the operating conditions and the floor flatness (in premises normally used linoleum 2.5 mm thick).
- Wear-resistant, wear resistance class: 23-43 depending on the thickness.
- flammability group - G2, G1.
- The shrinkage of not more than 0.2%.
- The thermal conductivity of about 0.6 W / (m * K).
- Light fastness - 6 to 8-point scale.
recommendations: Pay attention to the markings on the acquisition of homogeneous PVC linoleum. Some manufacturers in the linoleum mass is added ground limestone and talc. In the operation of such a linoleum streaks appear on the surface. Linoleum with a high limestone content or talc are cheaper, they have a greater weight than the high-quality coatings, often in such a coating there is no markings. To determine the amount of lime to bend linoleum. If the bend linoleum ripped or have a white stripe, then lime material more than the norm.
heterogeneous linoleum (Layered) - consists of several layers.
Features of heterogeneous linoleum:
- With a rich selection of drawings.
- Heterogeneous coatings Thickness - 2 - 6 mm width - 1.5-4 m.
- The thickness of the protective layer - 0.15 - 0.8 mm.
- Abrasion class 21-43.
- Flammability group G1.
- I do not shrink.
- Thermal conductivity - about 0.4 W / (m * K).
- Lightfastness - 8 of 8-point scale.
One type of heterogeneous (multilayer) is linoleum PVC tile.
Features PVC tiles:
- Tile thickness - 2, 2,5, 3 mm.
- The thickness of the protective layer 0.3 - 1 mm.
- Dimensions square shaped tiles: 300x300, etc. 450h450 mm, rectangular shape:. 100h900 mm mm 15h900 et al.
- The characteristics of matching tiles PVC linoleum in rolls.
- Service life - up to 20 years.
- Easily replaced during repair.
Selection class durability multilayer linoleum for the house, depending on the protective layer:
- Class 21 - a protective layer of 0.15-0.2 mm, for bedrooms, and service life - not less than 5 years (can not stand exposure of shoes heels, furniture Moving the update).
- Class 23 - a protective layer of 0.2-0.25 mm, is suitable for dining rooms, children's rooms.
- Class 25 - protective layer of 0.25-0.3 mm is suitable for residential applications with high traffic (corridors, halls, kitchens).
- 25-31 above classes (a protective layer to 0.5mm and above) are suitable for the premises, offices, etc.
- The highest grade - 43 is suitable for public spaces where people are constantly moving, and moving vehicles.
Other types of linoleum: Phenol, kolloksilinovy and rubber linoleum practically not used in residential areas because they emit toxic substances in their composition.
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What types of linoleum for the floor today on the market - their characteristics
In that linoleum occupies an increasingly strong position among other construction materials to repair the floor, no longer remains any doubt. This is quite natural, because the choice of such coatings is incredibly large and diverse. However, not always easy to understand what is the most high-quality linoleum and suitable for laying in certain areas.
Further, the material will explain what are the types of linoleum flooring, and describe in detail their characteristics, the positive and negative qualities.
We have a number of advantages of linoleum, which favorably distinguish it from other floor coverings:
- resistance to mechanical damage;
- mid-range, that is, linoleum is more accessible for the average consumer with low incomes;
- simplicity, convenience and speed of laying;
- environmental friendliness.
Nevertheless, when choosing a linoleum consumers pay attention also to such factors as external presentability, abrasion resistance and maintaining the original color, and texture of the decorative motif.
Drawing on linoleum texture of natural materials such as wood or stone, it allows to introduce into the interior of originality and harmony.
Variety roll of linoleum
All varieties of linoleum can be classified into a number of features that may affect its performance and to distinguish one from the other covering. Depending on the species, or that linoleum can be especially affecting its stacking technology.
Linoleum types depending on the type of foundations
Classification depending on the basis of an implied linoleum division into two large groups - baseless articles and material made with a base.
In turn, linoleum, devoid of bases can be:
- varying thickness, depending on the number of layers;
- with a variety of textures and colors.
At the same time, the market there is a huge amount of linoleum without a base, in particular:
- with monophonic or multi-colored pattern;
- print printed with the finished and also with a rough textured surface;
- material that simulates a chess board or ceramic tile.
Unbonded linoleum structure differs homogeneity therefore each individual coating portion characterized by similar properties.
A significant advantage of linoleum groundless considered his ability for a long time to maintain the original coloring and texture, despite the wear. See also: "heterogeneous and homogeneous linoleum - what is it actually."
Linoleum without a base is characterized by high wear resistance, which causes the possibility of its application in areas with heavy to cover, in particular, in offices and public places.
On the market can be seen materials of the upper layer thickness reaches 0.55 mm, making them very robust or reliable, increasing their fire resistance, as well as it allows to create a rough textured surface.
These materials are optimal for areas with constantly elevated humidity levels and accumulated a lot of garbage. Alternatively, such a linoleum will behave well in the kitchen area.
Another positive property of linoleum with a rough surface is its ability to visually conceal surface imperfections, its roughness. Such linoleum is ideal for laying on the floor, which has not passed the preliminary alignment procedure and contains small irregularities.
High demand type of linoleum with antistatic properties. In such a linoleum composition at its manufacturing carbon fibers are added, which reduce the ability of a material to accumulate static electricity. High demand for materials such arrangement operating rooms in banks, as well as computer clubs and Internet cafes.
For laying in hospitals often prefer linoleum with antiseptic coating. In addition, such a material has a high level of noise reduction and pleasant when walking and reduces the load on the locomotor apparatus.
Typically, the thickness of the roll coating is 2.5-3 mm.
The distinctive characteristics of the linoleum with a base are:
- a variety of colors, textures and prints, it is possible to create almost any decorative coating. In this case, the photo catalog of linoleum flooring manufacturers have a fairly extensive;
- long service life.
Varieties of linoleum on the basis of the foam is often chosen for laying on the premises of residential purpose, because they are not afraid of moisture and mechanical loads.
At linoleum fabric (or jute) based on the thickness can be up to 5 mm.
A linoleum consists of two main layers:
- an upper layer of PVC;
- a lower layer of a durable synthetic or natural jute.
This is a relatively new type of linoleum, which is quite often used for laying in residential apartments and houses in need of additional insulation of floors.
Distribution linoleum wear resistance categories
Besides the already specified by type, there are different categories of linoleum wear resistance class, which determines the durability and strength of the floor covering.
For operation in residential areas with low permeability and public institutions with a high level of loading provides excellent materials categories.
linoleum manufacture technology implies that decoration is applied to a substrate made of PVC, and then to apply a protective coating. It is up to the thickness of the coating and wear resistance depends on the class of one or another type of linoleum, as well as its cost (more: "What kind of linoleum wear resistance class to choose").
Manufacturers are constantly research and development to create a more durable material for use in public areas, at affordable prices for consumers.
One such development involves the application of decorative prints by embedding it in the surface to provide continuous staining across the material thickness.
Linoleum produced according to this technology, a two-level protection, in particular, are equipped with a protective coating and has sufficient thickness PVC layer. Such a material with a homogeneous structure is considered to be commercial.
There are three types of coatings field of their application:
- For premises - that is, apartments, houses, where the load of the coating is small.
- Semi-commercial - used in offices middle-permeability (more "semi-commercial Linoleum - the characteristics and rules for selection").
- Commercial - preferred for institutions where the load on the floor is extremely high.
According to such a classification and separated linoleum wear resistance categories.
Based on the linoleum distribution of classes and groups, you can try to determine the best option for their homes. However, no consensus on the desirability of placing a particular type of coverage in certain circumstances - no.
Most experts in the selection of linoleum based only on individual characteristics, verified by practice and time. However, you can always choose the best option, taking into account the individual characteristics of your home if necessary. At the same time laying linoleum will not take you much effort or time, because it is done very easily.
Marking and characteristics of linoleum
To understand what kinds of linoleum there, and correctly determine the choice of coverage for home, you should read the label of linoleum, determine their type and properties.
Symbols that can be found on the material are:
- manufactured according to GOST or TU, if the products of domestic manufacturers;
- marking EN means that the products are manufactured according to European standards of quality and one of the foreign countries.
To determine the quality and reliability of linoleum can be a number of characteristics, covering the main operating parameters:
- coating thickness;
- quality decorative layer and a tendency to burn;
- wear resistance class - propensity to abrasion;
- material deformation under the influence of indoor climate;
- sensitivity to indentation;
- evaporation of toxic substances;
- ability for sound absorption and water repellency;
- the presence of an antiseptic and antistatic coating.
So, we have identified what are the types of linoleum, what their main advantages and what are the characteristics. We hope that this information will help easier to navigate in a variety of floor coverings and equipped with comfortable, strong and durable floor.
How to choose linoleum for the apartments: characteristic species and their differences?
When choosing linoleum for home often pay attention primarily on its decor, appearance. It is essential, but not the main characteristic of the floor covering have the meaning composition, its durability, the thickness of the structure.
Choosing a floor covering in the apartment, many prefer linoleum - material with a fairly democratic price, easy to installation and maintenance. A wide selection of colors and patterns allow you to pick a material that will fit into any interior. You need to consider when choosing a load, which will be subject to a floor covering, the estimated service life, the purpose of the room in which it is laid.
Properties and types of linoleum flooring
The price range for this type of flooring, even within a single point of sale can be quite significant. Of course, much depends on the manufacturer, the cost of transport, but the main reason is that there are several types of linoleum for home, differing composition and performance:
linoleum, marmoleum or includes pine resin, cork and wood meal, linseed oil and other natural ingredients. Most often it is monotonous or marble pattern.
Benefits: Health safety, bactericidal properties, fire safety, high wear resistance, abrasion resistance, color fastness and stability of the structure, ruggedness to care.
Minuses: Friability, poor bending strength and shock resistance, sensitivity to high humidity, high prices (on 855 rubles / m..).
Assembly rules of the floor material wooden floor have their own specifics. More details - in a separate article.
PVC linoleum (Vinyl) - the most common type having an extensive palette of colors and graphics, and many varieties:
- fabric (polyester) or nonwoven (foamed PVC) based - it can also be double, of a combination of both materials;
- single layer (homogeneous) consisting of polyvinyl chloride with fillers - quartz sand, lime powder, and more durable laminate (heterogeneous) - with a stabilizing substrate of glass fiber, a decorative layer and a protective transparent layer of pure PVC;
- household, commercial and semi-commercial, different wear resistance, resistance to stress, service life (3-5 years in a residential area for domestic and 20 years in public high traffic for commercial). This division is also applied to the linoleum is made from other raw materials;
- Commercial special purpose - antistatic absorbing charge conductive, providing grounding, sports, with high damping ability and the resistance to sliding.
Price range of products relating to the category of PVC linoleum is very broad, each kind has its pros and cons, a number of features inherent in PVC linoleum generally.
Benefits: An environmentally safe, non-conductive, resistant to rotting, provides good thermal insulation due to the low thermal conductivity, easy to installation.
Minuses: Susceptibility to high temperatures, chemicals, greases, alkali resistance, brittleness at low temperatures.
Gliphtal linoleum - heterogeneous multilayer coating of alkyd resin on woven basis, at a price comparable with PVC linoleum in its class, has a varied design.
Benefits: Thermal and sound insulation characteristics is higher than that of PVC linoleum.
Minuses: Brittle, prone to cracking, possible deformation during temperature variations, is more complicated in installation.
Kolloksinovy linoleum usually single layer, unbonded, made from nitrocellulose with various fillers, on which the mark (there are 5), the quality and price of the coating.
Benefits: Affordability, flexibility, moisture resistance, abrasion resistance, color fastness.
Minuses: Thin, requires perfectly smooth base and substrate has a high thermal conductivity, the fire hazard is higher than in other species, may shrink and crack at low temperatures.
Widespread use of tiles due to its qualitative characteristics. In addition, the tile can simulate a variety of natural cover, including - and wood. It is important to know how to style your ceramic tiles on the floor. Read the recommendations on these issues here.
two-ply linoleum-Relin also called rubber, its lower layer consists of bitumen with the addition of crumb rubber, and the front - of the rubber with the filler and the colorant is typically monotonous with textured surface.
Benefits: Flexibility, moisture resistance, good anti-slip characteristics.
Minuses: Contains volatile substances harmful to health.
Determining the appropriate options for the premises for different purposes
In addition to the commercial division of linoleum, semi-commercial and home, applied European classification, linoleum marked double-digit.
The first digit denotes the scope:
- 2 - accommodation;
- 3 - administrative offices, offices;
- 4 - production facilities.
The second - the permissible load on the linoleum:
In different areas of apartment floor is exposed to uneven load:
What matters is also part of the family. For 1-2 people is enough of the lowest class, and if the apartment tenants a lot or frequently have guests, floor load increases.
This characteristic is higher in the multi-layer linoleum and depends on the thickness of the protective coating, while the monolayer - on the percent of impurities and their qualitative composition. On top of the protective laminate may have a linoleum or antibacterial facilitates cleaning paint coating.
Noteworthy is also the substrate - than it is thicker and thicker, the better the linoleum is being protected from bursting, the higher the heat and sound insulation properties, and in general - a thicker linoleum will last longer.
For different premises can recommend a linoleum:
- corridor, hallway, kitchen and children, if the children are in the house a lot, and they are active - Semi-commercial - 3 mm thick foamed on. Kitchen, child desirable antimicrobial coating;
- children, where the child lives a sedentary, grudnichok or teen lounge - domestic, 1.5 mm thick, preferably nonwoven foam framework;
- bedroom, study - domestic - a thickness of 1.2-1.5 mm may be on polyester basis.
If the room has a movable furniture on wheels (armchairs, computer chair, table), fit cover marked with the wheel on the packaging, it is protected from damage. To find out what types of linoleum are compatible with the "warm floor" system, it is sufficient to find relevant information in the technical specifications and labeling.
In addressing the issue - what to choose linoleum for the apartment - should be taken into account that figure and its color should be in harmony with the interior as a whole.
- For a small room or preferably a diagonal tile pattern imitates fine.
- The best choice for the kitchen linoleum - under the tile or wood.
- Bedroom - bright, calm tones.
- For a children - more vivid.
In addition to the aesthetic and technical characteristics of linoleum important number of details: the presence of the manufacturer's logo, no pungent smell, roughness, bumps and other defects. So the choice of linoleum in an apartment you must consider many factors.
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