- 1 Roof with his hands
- 2 How to make the roof of the house with his own hands - a step by step guide, mounting instruction
- 3 Gable roof: a step by step construction of their own hands
Roof with his hands
Design begins with the roof load fee. It is necessary to calculate the total weight of one square meter of the entire roof structure. This requires pre-drawing and draw a roof perform calculation snow and wind loads according to the district where the building is conducted.
In order to properly assemble the load, you need to know the proportion of all the materials that are used for the construction of the roof, from the type of wood to the insulation type and the outer coating. These data are necessary for the proper selection step rafters. The larger a load, the shorter the distance should be between the rafters.
The maximum distance, which is allowed to perform between rafters must not exceed 1200 mm. The best is a distance of one meter. Then you need to pick up the timber section.
For the calculation of the roof structure has a special algorithm from the set of formulas, but they are only intended to analyze the construction of large industrial buildings. For private building section selection process can be simplified.
The height of the timber is calculated from the maximum length of the rafter. 1/20 of the length will be the optimum beam height. But 1/3 of a height - it will be necessary width of the timber. The result is a robust system that is capable of withstanding heavy loads.
The roof of his hands. Instructions for the construction of
In a wooden house upper beam for strapping frame house will serve as a support for the rafters. In a brick house on the upper edge of the masonry must be set mauerlat - powerful horizontal beams, which crutches attached to the wall.
The roof is constructed with his own hands for a few days if the plan the whole process properly. At the junction of two different materials, such as brick and wood, always necessary to lay waterproofing. Instructions for the construction of the roof starts with the correct folding supporting beams. Then, set sloping rafters at an angle, which is provided in the project.
To fix the rafters set mowing and strapping the board as part of the crates. Bonding of the rafters in a single structure made wooden roof stable. At this stage it is important to accurately align the position of the rafters, they must be in the same plane, strictly in the correct design position.
After fixing the rafters stuffed crate, which is a series of planks with a certain pitch, they then will be attached the final coating. If the roof is provided with soft materials, such as continuous lath do of sheets of plywood. In all other cases it is enough to nail furring elements at a distance from each other.
After laid protective materials (insulation and vapor barrier) and set the final roof covering. In some cases, the insulation is inside the structure after the installation of the roofing material. Rafter roof must be ventilated to ensure a normal climate for designs and their durability.
Any work can be divided into stages. Thus, the roof with his hands on the steps.
First step. Make a calculation of the roof to collect the load, to determine the section of the rod, its length. Be sure to keep all the data in the consumption of materials specification.
The second step. Prepare all the necessary tools, to buy material to prepare a place for storage. Think through feeder heavy structures on the roof. On the day of the work may need to hire a crane.
The third step. Prepare the surface to work. Start Installation mauerlat, strapping beams and rafters. Carefully check the design position the rafters. At the end of the day to make sure that the working structure is secured.
The fourth step. Filing batten boards. Fixing battens and laying of protective material under the roof. At this stage, we will have to do a lot of work podrezochnyh. Hacksaw to work hard and long, so you need to rent a parketnitsu or jigsaw.
The fifth step. Installation of roofing material, checking the joints. Here, after the completion of the assembly work can be performed filing boxes, to prevent the wind pressure of the side walls under the cover design.
Gable sloping ceilings with their hands. Blueprints
Gable sloping ceilings significantly improves the functionality of the attic. Conventional gable roof creates dead space inclined plane, which can not be in full growth.
Polygonal roof gable space expands due to the special design of the inclined plane of the fracture. Thus, ironically, it obtained complete interior area, which can be equipped with a bedroom.
Referring to the drawings, such a roof of a house built by installing a strictly vertical posts and horizontal puffs, and on the sides of the rectangle are built improvised and naslonnye hanging rafters. To ensure that the necessary design strength of the joist until mid naslonnogo rafters are installed struts.
All other operations are performed similarly to the scheme as described above. The main difficulty in building construction gable sloping roof - is to choose the right timber section and set all the elements according to the drawing. In most cases, the roofing pie added insulation and vapor barrier. This greatly complicates the process of installation of the roof truss, but without these elements do attic room makes no sense.
For private home is preferable to choose a pitched roof, which has a gradient of more 2.5%. The easiest option - a pent roof, but this is only used on structures such as part-time. The design of the character of one flat sloping roof plane, which is based on the two side walls of the building.
Universal is considered gable roof, which is supported by two external walls in one level, and the inclined plane are reduced in the middle of a ridge assembly. The front part of the roof is called a fronton and typically is sealed with the same material from which the carrier is constructed of the house.
Hipped roof is a hipped roof without gable. On all sides of the building roof comes down from the top edge of the wall up. Such a roof is better than others adapted to take wind and snow loads, however, it is rather complicated in construction. All roof frame assemblies must be built in compliance with the complex laws of statics of structures.
Hip roof looks like hipped, but its main difference - is that all four of the plane of the roof have a strictly triangular. As a result, with the center of the building, ramps differ on the four sides, forming a tent.
Breaking or mansard roof represents creation of polygonal planes of the roof at an obtuse angle. The result is a rather extensive loft-style room, which can be used as a dwelling.
All kinds of roofs have their own advantages and disadvantages. Some look better, but require significant construction costs, while others are simple in construction, but also presentable in appearance. Selection of the roof is usually carried out after the determination of snow and wind region. Roof type it is important to agree on the design stage.
The roof frame house with their hands
In fact, the construction of the roof frame house is no different from building roofs for buildings of other types. The only point is about fixing rafters to the supporting structures. Here, instead of using strapping mauerlat beam.
The rest of the procedure is similar. For ease of construction, before the need to build a raised floor or mount a complete hardwood floor. Install the rafters with scaffolding inconvenient and time consuming.
For a frame house is recommended to choose the least massive construction of the roof so that it does not create a critical pressure on the supporting elements. You should not build on additional elements on the roof, including roof windows, if they do not advance in the draft.
The roof of his hands. Design
Depending on the roof construction must be selected amount of material and the section supporting beams. For private homes, in particular frame type, the most effective gable gable and sloping ceilings. All other structures are complex and require a large number of retaining elements, which are much heavier the entire roof.
For a frame house is better not to use a natural ceramic tiles in the coating quality. In addition, it is very hard, you will need to mount densely fill crate. The result will further enhance the load-bearing strut or decrease the pitch between them, resulting in an overrun materials.
What role is played in the roof support beams?
The reference beam serves to attach rafters at the bottom. Rafter rests on the wall impractical, therefore use additional beam which senses the slope of the load and transmits it to the supporting structures vertically.
The reference beam must be used fairly large timber cross-section. It must be firmly fixed to the wall. When the roof, together with a reference beam are simply lying on the wall, can undermine the wind roof. In spite of the large weight of the roof, it can fly at a squall gusts.
How to make the roof of the house with his own hands - a step by step guide, mounting instruction
Construction of the roof with his hands - a difficult task, but it is quite feasible for those who have at least some experience in construction. The work went smoothly, you need to prepare thoroughly, examine the roof installation technology, the sequence of operations and methods of attaching the individual structural elements. About how elevated roof of the house with his own hands, and will be discussed in this article.
The most common types include roofs:
Each design has a number of features, so you should consider them a bit more:
- abat-vent. The roof, which has only one slope is different in the first place cost - for the installation of a minimum set of required materials. In addition, the installation process is quite simple and fast. However, payment of these benefits eventually comes quite significant: first, the design is not very attractive visually, and secondly, under the roof will be too little space for arranging a loft or attic.
- gable roof. This embodiment of the roof of the most popular due to ease of installation and the possibility to build a complete room roof space. Roof with two slopes a little more complicated and more expensive The single version, but it is easier and cheaper in comparison with hipped design. A key feature is the presence of the roofs bi gables triangular shape, which are disposed at the ends of the building. To learn how to make a triangular roof, it is worth to check out more in the corresponding article.
- hipped roof. For the installation of a roof will need thorough preparation and significant costs. Design a hipped roof includes a lot of elements, so the work will be very much. Attic of this design can not be equipped with windows because of missing gables - but the roof and dormer windows need necessarily, because at their expense will provide illumination and evacuation if necessary.
- Roof with broken slopes. As a rule, this type of roof is mounted in the case, if you want to make a full attic. The design of the roof in this case involves installation of the bottom portion with a steep slope compared to the upper portion, whereby the space lying ceiling and increased effective area.
- combined roof. As the name implies, the combined roof may include signs of several or all designs. Especially popular this type of roof is not earned, but in some situations, only the combination of different design features to achieve the desired result.
Selection of type of roof is always different, so you need to make a start on their own wishes and possibilities.
Before you do the roof, you need to perform calculations of all components. The best option would be a full-fledged calculation of each indicator, but in practice this is rarely necessary.
The easiest way is to take the standard of the cross section of the roof elements, especially if it is a typical construction:
- Mauerlat - 150x150 mm;
- Racks - 100x150 or 150x150 mm (exact values depend on the cross-section trusses);
- Struts - 100x150 or 50h150 (determined individually depending on how much will be convenient to connect the struts to the rafters);
- Tightening - 50h150 mm;
- Runs - 200x200 mm;
- Rubbers - from 32 to 50 mm.
The exact calculation of height and cross-section is performed solely for the rafters with the following parameters:
- The material used for the roof;
- The level of precipitation in the region (usually accepted for the calculation of the values obtained in the winter);
- Step rafters;
In principle, the calculation of the house with his own hands the roof can be performed is not very accurate, and about values - but in this case you need to add to the results of at least a small margin of safety. To finally simplify the calculation process, you can use the online calculator or special tables of standard values.
If we make the roof of the house with his own hands, it is often necessary to mount more and heating material. In such a case, the height rafters will depend on the thickness of the insulation. Mounting of a thermal insulation layer should be formed so that material is located below the bearing beams. Using as insulation mineral wool, it is worth considering that it requires a small gap through which will be carried out construction of ventilation. This gap can simply leave if the rafters are high enough, or mount kontrobreshetku.
How to build a roof with his hands
General instructions for the construction of a roof with their hands is as follows:
- First you need to measure all the dimensions of the building;
- Next comes the preparation of all materials (including impregnation of wood elements with antiseptics and flame retardants) and tools;
- It starts with installation mauerlat;
- Next, a ridge bolt (if required);
- Then the frame is fixed;
- The design of fixed and reinforced struts, struts and puffs;
- In the assembled frame is attached a waterproofing layer and lathing;
- Further carried out the necessary work to ensure good ventilation of the roof space;
- Then set Drip;
- The last step - assembling the material chosen for the roof covering.
Before you build the roof of the house, it is necessary to create a structure designed to provide a secure attachment of the roof to the building - and it mauerlat on which you install the assembled frame. However, when installing a roof on wooden house mauerlat is not necessary - it will play the role of the upper crown of the building. By the walls of the roof will be attached with the help of pegs.
Similarly set the roof of a frame house - as mauerlat this time will be the top rail. A compound of the building and the roof elements is carried out by notching with the use of metal parts, in which there are holes for the screws.
It is quite another thing - the installation of the roof on a concrete or brick house. In this case, set mauerlat in several ways, and selection of a particular method depends on the result of the calculation and experience of craftsmen.
Installation mauerlat performed in one of four ways:
- wire installation. To implement this attachment is necessary to lay the wire into the masonry at a distance of up to four rows of edge designs. Mauerlat subsequently be bolted to the walls of the wire. This variant differs lowest reliability, but do it anyone can.
- Installation with staples. This method involves stacking wooden bars in the clutch in four rows from the edge. One part of the bracket is fastened directly to the mauerlat, and the second to a previously recorded bar. This method is also not complicated, but it is highly undesirable to use in buildings with a large load on the roof.
- Mounting with studs. Studs about 10-12 mm in diameter assembled in the clutch. Over them temporarily laid mauerlat and rap with a hammer, after which it remained small holes in places where timber would have to be fixed. These points are drilled through, whereupon mauerlat can be mounted on mounting and tightening the screws.
- Mounting with anchor bolts. This method differs complexity and maximal reliability. Anchor bolts are placed in the concrete wall around the perimeter. The resulting mount not only provides high-quality fixation of the roof, but also increases the strength of the cut walls made of lightweight concrete.
Instructions for the construction of the rafters
Bearing elements of the roof must be securely attached to the harness, which is used several ways. If settling the roof of a wooden house with his own hands, the rafters can be extremely naslonnymi.
The whole point of two mutually exclusive rules:
- Rafters of wooden houses can be fixed solely hinged;
- Fixing the hanging trusses can only be carried out hard way.
That is why the regeneration of buildings, made of wood, can be used only naslonnaya truss system, mounted on hinges. For the installation of a roof will have to buy special items (usually referred to as slides) to provide self leveling roof shrinkage house.
Created with his own hands the roof of a single-storey house, whose walls are made of brick or stone, can settle on any scheme, but the greatest efficiency is achieved with rigid fixation of rafters. Setting the frame system can be performed with both notching, and without it.
To create a roof notching must first uproot the rafters so that he lay down close to mauerlat. Make a cornice in this case it is necessary through the fillies that are attached to the rafters with at least meter overlap. Fixing the structural elements may be performed using any fasteners, but the best one metal corners will be fixed with screws.
If the roof to be installed without notching, the filly not required - Required carcass departure will be performed at the expense of the beams themselves. This option is somewhat simpler in the arrangement, because it does not require an exact fit all the elements for it. To the rafters good fit with the mauerlat apply stops or individual boards. Attach elements better in the same way as in the previous case.
Assembled frame must be attached to the construction of the box, so the whole structure is not blown away by the gusty wind. To fix is fine 4-mm wire, pieces of which are wrapped around rafter at the point of support. The free ends of the wire are attached to the advance specified in the wall anchors. In the case of wooden houses is quite possible to use staples - they will be sufficient to reliably hold the roof in place.
To improve the strength of the frame is necessary to reduce the span of rafters by means of braces and struts. The struts are usually set at 45 or 60 degrees to the horizontal. As supports used for racks located underneath the wall or special elements placed in the space between the walls.
Also, the design may be enhanced tightening, which reduces the load of bursting. This is especially true when using a hanging roof system. two puffs are usually used to build the frame, mounted with screws on both sides regarding the rafters.
Lathing, waterproofing and ventilation
In the assembled framework is primarily set the selected waterproofing material, and only then can be mounted very crate. Its design and dimensions of the elements used are selected individually. Before you make the roof of a small house with his own hands, it is necessary to read a separate article on how to properly mount the crate.
Also worth to take care of ventilation, for which it is necessary:
- To ensure passage of air under the roof through the rods;
- The free movement of the air under the roof;
- Unhindered escape of air through the ridge portion of the roof.
Mounting of roof covering and insulation
One of the final stages in the assembly of the roof is the installation of roofing. On the choice of a suitable material and installation costs of its algorithm to read the article on relevant topics. The last stage - laying the thermal insulation layer. As the insulation for the roof is most commonly used mineral wool. Selection of the thickness of the mineral wool should be implemented, starting from the climatic conditions in the region where the construction.
Installation of the roof after a detailed study does not look so very very heavy task. Before you make a pitched roof, you need to prepare well and stock up on everything you need to plan the work. If you follow the precise algorithm, and perform all work with maximum diligence, the result is a high quality and robust design that can stand for more than a decade and firmly protect the building from any external influences.
Gable roof: a step by step construction of their own hands
The construction of the roof - one of the most important stages of construction home. The most simple designs are a gable roof with straight ramps. Their calculation and installation can be done by yourself, carefully read the step by step instructions and video. Functional parameters of the roof also depends on proper insulation, installation characteristics and quality finish.
To determine the configuration and size of the roof, it is necessary to take into account the snow and wind loads in the climatic conditions - the smaller the angle, the better design resists corrosion. But a small angle (40 degrees or less) not allow full use of the attic space.
The shape and construction of the roof are designed in accordance with the project plan at home: the key points of the roof truss system support should coincide with the lines and the location of points of load-bearing structures of the underlying floor. Thus, it is necessary to take into account the width of the house, the presence of the longitudinal load-bearing wall in the middle. If the attic is not planned to be used as an extra usable area for permanent or seasonal residence, it is possible to perform a reliable roof with rafters naslonnymi. In this case, rafters are attached to the ridge pole, which is supported by the rack, based on an internal bearing wall.
Hanging rafters - the most practical and economical choice for lightweight structures. In this case, the rafters are interconnected pairwise bolts - horizontal webs which provide the necessary rigidity. with hanging rafters system is supported by the side walls of the building.
If the width of the house is more than 6 meters, in addition to the cross-bars, which serve as the basis for the ceiling, you are installing girders and racks. Run is a horizontal bar projecting as an additional support for the rafters forming the roof slope. Installation requires the use of racks run. Racks, in turn, rely on the Ledge - a special timber, laid along the slope. Ledge and the rack frame perform the function of the walls of the attic space. Such a design allows to make naslonnaya loft or a spacious attic for household needs their own hands.
If you want to build a simple and reliable roof, gable design is optimally suited to the angle of inclination of 45-50 °. This truss system is suitable for installation in homes and buildings for various purposes. When calculating the material must be taken into account that the truss system should be easy enough to avoid an excessive load on the foundation, but strong. The cross section of lumber should be selected based on the size of truss construction.
Consider a step by step method of construction with their own hands with the roof naslonnymi rafters and attic. In the first stage you are installing on the longitudinal walls of the house cantrail - mauerlat. Tying takes the whole roofing system pressure and transmits it uniformly building structures - the walls and the foundation.
Mauerlat manufactured from a bar (cross-section of 50 × 150 to 150 × 150 mm) treated with special protective means for the prevention of rotting and fire.
Mauerlat can be done in various ways:
- a masonry wall in rolled wire, whereby the timber is fastened to the wall (wire threaded through specially made openings and tightly twisted);
- the masonry wall in long metal rods with diameters from 12 mm;
- in the upper part of the wall is done monolithic concrete beam with imbedded steel pins.
Studs must be placed in increments of no more than 120 mm. The height of the protruding end of the fastener should exceed 20-30 mm total thickness waterproofing and timber, in which to make the holes beforehand. Bruce put on the studs and nuts tightly drawn with large washers.
Erection of roof system
Truss system, which can be done by hand, consists of a number of elements, combined into a single unit. Rafter A-frame farm is a rigid structure that works "to thrust". If a roof construction lumber is conducted in the home, the opposing walls must be strengthened ties of timber 100 × 150 mm at the level of the ceiling beams. This is done so that the walls are not moved apart under load.
On the ceiling overlap stacked sleepers - additional elements of the timber 150 × 150 mm or more, which serve as a support for racks and redistribute point load to the surface slab. Laying the sleepers with their hands should be done along the lines of the walls of the future location of the attic. If the attic is not planned to be used, groundsel can be laid directly under the ridge for mounting the support legs. If necessary, you can make splice bar, but only in places where the joint will rest on the beam. Tenon connection is strengthened metal plate or bracket.
Repeating details truss system should be made completely identical to each other, to build an isosceles gable roof, whose weight is distributed evenly even under atmospheric corrosion. To this end, with his own hands made templates of identical parts.
On the ceiling board decomposed Housing 50 × 150 mm, manufactured by Triangle required height of the two boards and rafters-pillar (the length corresponds to the height of the future roof) connected nail. Two or three raised design - a rack mounted on the central axis of the ceiling, roof mounted on mauerlat.
In preparing the pattern elements can be extended by varying the roof height and selecting the most suitable option.
Having defined the size, you need to make curly gash on the rafters in their places of contact with the strapping. Rafter foot should firmly rest against the mauerlat. There are a number of ways to mount, choose the most convenient and reliable, it is desirable to use metal plates. can be found on the video with the intricacies of the technology. Get truss structure further acts as a template, and board-support helps control the height established farms.
Pediment is a continuation of the wall, bounded pitched roof. If you allow a gable roof, gable houses have a triangular shape. When installing the truss construction in the first set extreme farm that later serve as a scaffold for the gables. It is necessary to strictly check the verticality of constructions and ensure that they have the same height. At the top of the gables is mounted ridged run, which are mounted in the further remaining truss structure.
Usually gables sutured after the roofing works, but it can be done at an earlier stage. Mounting board 50 or 50 × 100 × 150 mm is performed in the vertical or horizontal direction. Pediment, that you can build with their own hands, often supplied with windows.
Necessary to provide insulation and gables.
Thermal insulation of the roof and installation of roofing
In the truss system stuffed lathing step which is calculated based on the characteristics of roofing material - its size and stiffness, the method of installation. If provided the use of flexible materials (shingles, PVC film, rolled asphalt roofing), it is necessary to make a continuous flat floor.
you must take the utmost care to the insulation of the roof, because otherwise the heat loss will be quite substantial. Typically, gable roof immediately performed based on the application of those or other materials for thermal insulation - in the construction of roof system with their own hands the rafters step is calculated with respect to the width of the sheet of insulation. This allows you to build a roof with minimal economic costs, since the material for the insulation does not have to be cut. In addition, this approach accelerates and simplifies the installation of insulation and vapor barrier system.
Erection of pitched roof is recommended to perform with two assistants. technology works Compliance allows you to build a robust, durable construction.