- 1 How to plant Chinese cabbage: sprouts at home. Dates of planting Chinese cabbage in the open ground in the different regions of the country
- 1.1 When to plant Chinese cabbage seedling
- 1.2 How to grow seedlings of Chinese cabbage in the home
- 1.3 When planting seedlings Chinese cabbage in the open ground
- 1.4 How to transplant the seedlings Chinese cabbage in the open ground
- 1.5 How to get a great harvest of Chinese cabbage in the open ground
- 1.6 Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in a greenhouse
- 1.7 Problems in growing Chinese cabbage
- 2 Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground: tips
- 3 Chinese cabbage cultivation and care
How to plant Chinese cabbage: sprouts at home. Dates of planting Chinese cabbage in the open ground in the different regions of the country
Grow Chinese cabbage - troublesome, even experienced gardeners often faced with failure.
To get it, you need not only to care for seedlings, but also meet the deadlines, as well as the planting rules.
When planting Chinese cabbage seedlings and how to do it?
When to plant Chinese cabbage seedling
Pekinka widely represented in the market gardeners grow many varieties, but the most simple is to grow kale. She often can be found in the market and in stores. It is cold-resistant culture, which gives a rich harvest under short photoperiod. The first mistake many summer visitors is the wrong landing time.
Important! When the photoperiod 13 hours more cabbage seedlings arrows without forming cabbages. This feature should be considered.
Due to the fact that the seeds hatch at 4-5 C and good commodity cabbages are fastened only at the temperature of 15-20 C, in some regions, collect two harvests per season. Thus, planting Chinese cabbage seedlings is carried out in early spring and late summer. The exact dates depend on the region of cultivation and climate.
• In Siberia, the seed sowing is carried out in early March in a greenhouse or in the beginning of May in open ground. For the fall of consumption of sprouts is prepared in the second half of July.
• In central Russia seeds are sown strictly from April 15 to 20, or from 20 to 15 August.
• In the southern regions of the country pekinku sown very early, at the end of March to early April. For autumn sowing consumption conducted from mid-August to mid-September.
When planting Chinese cabbage seedlings, of course, but also important crop varieties. To get a good harvest, experienced gardeners recommend only grow hybrid varieties pekinki that are resistant to tsvetushnosti:
• Decoy, Mandarin Orange - early-maturing varieties that are harvested after 45-50 days;
• Cha-Cha, or Ljubasha Soothsayer - middle-variety, maturity is reached at 50-60 day;
• Nick and Russian size - late varieties, cut off after 60-80 days.
In the northern regions of the country it is better to plant the early varieties, which are distinguished by their early ripening, and resistance to pests. The first harvest can be obtained after 30-40 days after transplanting into the ground.
Tip! Age of seedlings before transplanting into the ground should be 30 days. This will help to accurately calculate the timing of sowing seeds of chinese cabbage seedlings.
How to grow seedlings of Chinese cabbage in the home
The second mistake in growing Chinese cabbage is swordplay seedlings. It is preferable to cultivate seedlings without picks as pekinka not tolerate it. It is better to plant the seeds in total capacity, and peat-compost directly into individual cups for a few pieces. As the seedlings of the strongest growth is left, and the rest are removed. Transplant seedlings for permanent carried out in the same pot, the root system is not damaged.
Important! Any interference in the root system or changing the growth conditions leads to flowering cabbage crop damage.
Containers for growing seedlings of loose fill Peat mixture and seeds are buried to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. After planting cups are cleaned in warm, dark place but for the swelling seeds.
As soon as the shoots, the container is transferred to a bright but cool place where the temperature does not rise above 7-8 C. It is possible to bring the seedlings to the glazed balconies, or in an unheated room. Water the seedlings with lukewarm water and carefully, so as not to pour.
When planting seedlings Chinese cabbage in the open ground
If spring is early, you can avoid growing seedlings in cups, sowing seeds directly into open ground. In this case, the seeds are buried to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. The seed is large enough, so will not be difficult to distribute it at a distance of not less than 15-20 cm. After germination thinning is carried out every 10 cm. As soon as the plants grow stronger, thin out seedlings once again, leaving one seedling for every 35-40 cm.
When the summer crop cultivation is carried out as well. 21 days after seedling sprouts spud when serried leaves, weeding between rows. Watered moderately, avoiding stagnation of water, but the soil is moistened during the dry season to a depth of 20 cm.
Experienced gardeners have resorted to a little trick to get regular pekinki harvest to the table and sown the seeds every week on time. To reduce daylight and prevent flowering cabbage, beds covered lutrasilom.
How to transplant the seedlings Chinese cabbage in the open ground
As already mentioned, the seedlings are planted together with peat cups, so as not to injure the roots. 10 days before the expected landing of seedlings carried to the street for hardening. Before planting them well watered.
For a good crop of cabbage it is important to choose the right place to plant feel comfortable. Pekinka prefers sunny areas with a light, fertile and well-drained soil, preferably loamy. Only after did not land cabbage tomatoes, beets or other cruciferous crops. They have a common disease and pests. The best preceding are legumes, green manure, carrots, onion, garlic and cucumber.
Planning pekinku prepared in autumn or spring. Digging make compost and humus. To each well add superphosphate, wood ash and urea. Planting well-watered.
How to get a great harvest of Chinese cabbage in the open ground
It is important to know that vegetables grow well only in the shade, but in good light and humidity. For the first time recommended to cover the beds nonwoven.
1. Young plants will be protected from sudden frost or heat.
2. The seedlings will take root without access to sunlight.
3. The root system of the seedlings do not suffer from waterlogging in the rainy period.
4. Pekinka will be protected from the crucifer flea.
5. Cabbage under cover better head out.
After 14 days, the shelter clean and the bed of straw mulch. inter-row hoeing is carried out carefully. Further care for a vegetable is not different from the usual.
Cabbage belongs to the moisture-loving plants, so it requires abundant, but rare watering. Suffice it 1 time per week is good to wet the soil to a depth of 20-25 cm.
Water the plants with warm water just below the root, so that water does not get to the leaves. This is best done early in the morning or in the evening. After watering the beds well mulched to help retain moisture in the soil for a long time.
As practice shows, a good harvest Chinese cabbage can be grown using organic fertilizers.
1. The first time planting, fertilize with a solution of bird droppings, mullein, or infusion of herbs. At one plant consume a liter feeding.
2. The second time the flower bed fertilizing when forming Vilkov solution of boric acid. It is better to make fertilizer on the leaves and in the evening.
Spring planting fertilized three times and fall only two.
Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in a greenhouse
In greenhouse conditions pekinku grown by sowing seeds directly into the ground or through seedlings.
If you resort to the latter option, cabbages are ripe for a week earlier than usual.
For the full growth of the plants need optimum conditions.
The temperature regime is maintained at 15-20 C, oscillations in any direction and high bloom provoke disease.
Humidity in the greenhouse should be at least 70%.
Problems in growing Chinese cabbage
In order to analyze the mistakes, first of all, you need to know how to grow pekinka.
After emergence of the seedlings leaves are formed, they are closed in the outlet and form a head weighing 1-2 kg. Then there is a flower arrow. However, most flower arrow formed before the vegetables are fork forms. Why is this happening? The answer is simple - pekinka plant cold-resistant, and high temperatures and long daylight causes blooming.
Successfully grow vegetables in the hot southern climates only in early spring or late fall. And here in the north it is much easier to implement.
On the problem of the cultivation of crucifers include pests, among them are especially pesky flea, cabbage fly, scoop, moth, butterfly, white butterfly and cricket.
To the vegetable disease is unstable, often sprouts affected by blackleg fungal diseases, bacteriosis and rot, powdery mildew. However, if you properly care for plants and comply with crop rotation, these troubles will bypass.
What should I do if the plant is still ill? Against fungal diseases help to spray fungicides, but can not cope with the virus. Infected plants were removed from the beds, and the landing place is treated. Against insects by spraying with insecticides, but once is not enough for the complete destruction of the pest. Repeated treatment is carried out after 7-10 days.
Important! The latter treatment is carried out for a month before harvest.
After harvesting the cabbage, not all are suitable for storage. Planted in the spring fork only suitable for summer consumption and did not lie. Autumn cabbage successfully kept to the middle of winter, sometimes longer.
Since the plant is cold-resistant, it can be left in the garden until the middle of October. Clean up and lay on the storage needs only fully ripened forks, t. E., Those who have purchased the density.
For successful storage pekinke not require any special conditions. It lies well in dry basement where the temperature does not rise above 5C., And the humidity is at 95%. Kochan just laid out on wooden shelves or drawers. Some gardeners keep cabbage otherwise, wrap each in plastic wrap plugs. In this form it lies well to the spring. Often inspect vegetables, spoiled, use first.
Experienced gardeners have noticed that the apple store cabbage can not be, otherwise it starts to fade early. If there is no basement or cellar, it is possible to put a crop in the glassed-in balcony, but watch out for the temperature that it does not fall below 0 C. When the weather is established, and the outside temperature drops below -5 C, head additionally harbor a warm blanket or burlap.
Grow Chinese cabbage is easy, but when to plant it on the seedlings every gardener to decide. But to start to define the purpose of the crop and variety. If the cabbages need for summer consumption, the seeds are sown in early spring. Late with deadlines? It does not matter to plant seedlings Chinese cabbage can be in the middle of the summer, then in late autumn enjoy its amazing taste.
Observe the rotation and be sure to spend a prophylactic treatment against pests and diseases. Care of plants is correct: the extent of watering, fertilize, and a good harvest will not take long.
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Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground: tips
Chinese cabbage in Russia's popularity has caught up with his distant relative - white cabbage, and has become a leader in some indicators. So, its not necessary to plant seedlings, and seeds can be dispensed, which greatly simplifies the cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground. The second important advantage - it is much faster form of the head, that is, no need to wait for the fall harvest. Third, the quality of this wonderful vegetable - it can be used for salads and hot dishes, and pickles that have already appreciated by thousands of cooks. Normally Chinese cabbage is not capricious, but some farmers instead of forming heads of cabbage, she throws a useless buds. What's the matter? What are the secrets you need to know to get a good crop?
Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground, subject to a few simple conditions possible even for beginners to Ogorodny case. Some difficulties can arise only at the initial stage - the purchase of seed, because sometimes in the bags that are sold in all the specialty stores, you can see different names and the same picture vegetable. Everyone knows that Beijing is the capital of China. It is therefore logical that the Chinese cabbage and Chinese - are one and the same, however there are two varieties of this vegetable. One - cabbage salad, or bok choy, and the other - forming cobs, or pet-sai. Bok choy does not form heads, only the leaves, rosette formed around the main kidney. For these leaves, extremely useful from the standpoint of medicine, and cultivated it. In Russia it is bok choy is often called Chinese cabbage, and pet-sai - Beijing. It is also useful for health. So, there are lots of vitamins A, C, B, PP, there carotene, citric acid and ascorbic acid, essential for the body of people whites.
To the cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open field brought no surprises, look at the appearance of this vegetable. If all seeding rates and maintenance, loose crop is oblong cabbages length of 35 cm. At the base of each sheet has a large central core fleshy, whitish in color. Its shape is often triangular, while the dimensions are such that constitute approximately 20% and a sheet. The rest of it is quite delicate, pale green, less often green or rich green color, slightly convex, with jagged edges. In terms of head has a yellowish-green color. Seeds from Chinese cabbage melenkie like tiny beads. This vegetable likes moisture, light and heat, but is able to withstand freezing and motivated to -4 degrees Celsius. This does not apply to young Chinese cabbage seedlings, which need to provide above-zero temperature.
Chinese cabbage has a lot of features. One of them - a very fast germination. Therefore, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground from the seeds is the most convenient way to its cultivation. The main condition that must be met, - the temperature regime. The fact that the cabbage head Weighted gives only a temperature range from +13 to +22 degrees Celsius. When cooler weather the foreign vegetable active way arrows at higher not tying good heads and also throws the flower stalks. planting dates for each region should be focused on the climatic conditions, taking into account the fact that the seeds germinate no more than a week at ambient temperature up to 5 degrees and about 4 days at a temperature of 13 degrees. On average, spring cabbage are sown in open ground in mid-April to mid-June, but experienced gardeners are advised to carry out sowing at intervals of about 2 weeks to have a harvest for a long time.
Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground in the spring - the most convenient way to get the highest yield. For beds emit a well-lit place with a light neutral ground. Seeds are placed in the ground to a depth of no more than 2 cm, and preferably - from 1 to 1.5 cm We Chinese cabbage prior to formation of heads grow very large lower leaves which subsequently die, but in the growth process is very interfere with each other.. On this basis, between future cabbages distance should be at least 30 cm. It is almost impossible to sustain, sowing seeds melenkie, so in the future shoots necessarily need to thin out. To seedlings emerged faster, but also to protect them from possible frost film cover crops is desirable.
Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground is rarely causes difficulties. After emergence and thinning the first place in importance beyond the correct watering. Chinese cabbage likes moisture and its lack of quality of heads does not form. However, when an excess of water it begins to rot. It needs to be watered abundantly, but so that water does not stagnate, and in particularly hot days to organize his plants irrigated by rain. Another important factor for the cabbage and weeding and loosening the soil is shallow. Fed with this vegetable per season 2 times with a solution of liquid manure or mullein.
Not only the seeds, but seedlings practiced cultivation Chinese cabbage in the open ground in the home. This is done for the earlier ripening or for multiple harvests per season. Engage in seedlings of cabbage Peking begin in the second half of April. This plant does not like transplants and picks, so each seed immediately placed in a separate cartridge or in peat pot (tablet). It can be sown and 2-3 seeds, so as to leave after germination the strongest seedling, and the rest removed. Once shoots hatch, the containers with seedlings are transferred to a well-lit, but not hot place (environment temperature - up to 18 degrees), so that germs are not strongly stretched. Otherwise, plant them will be problematic. On the bed of seedlings planted in the ground with a lump, without damaging the root system. The wells are doing from one another in the 25-30 cm. In each added half a cup of ashes and a pinch (up to a teaspoon) of complex fertilizers. Sprouts are ready to move to the open ground, when each will be 5-6 leaves. In the first days after planting the young plants should cover film on the night of extreme temperatures. Harvest can collect within 3 weeks.
Since Chinese cabbage matures quickly, its harvest for the season can be harvested twice a second sowing seeds from late July to mid-August. In June, it is not sown, due to the length of daylight hours, which for the formation of heads should be no more than 12-13 hours. Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground in July, not much different from the process in the spring. The only thing that should be done in addition gardeners - artificially shortened to its Cabbage length of daylight hours, covering plants lutrasilom. You also need to provide sufficient irrigation and to prevent drying of the soil. For cabbage seeds are planted in the months when the sun shines more than 13 hours. Thus, no matter how high temperature.
Bolting Chinese cabbage
Almost all gardeners planted Chinese cabbage for the sake of cabbages. But sometimes instead of forming heads of the plants begin to flower throw the arrow and crops does not work. To prevent this from happening, you need to comply with all rules to carry out the cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground. Photo, shown below, shows how the rows should appear before the last thinning. With this method of planting the plants do not emit unnecessary and used for cooking.
Arrows may appear:
- if too long photoperiod;
- lack of nutrients in the soil;
- insufficient irrigation in the hot weather.
Sometimes capricious cabbage at her transplant. This happens when the gardeners, thinning planting, try to keep the extra plants, transplanting them to another place.
Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the open ground in the country or the plot usually resolves without complications. Note: this culture after planting is undesirable other cruciferous (radish, radish, mustard) that reduces the risk of diseases specific to these crops. Among the pests often attack cabbage flea beetles that can completely destroy seedlings. Insecticides need to sprinkle the bed of ashes. They love to feast on a cabbage leaf and slugs. If they are seen in the area, to suit their special traps. Another pest - cabbage, lay their eggs on the back of the leaves. If there are any such masonry, destroy them manually.
Chinese cabbage cultivation and care
Chinese cabbage - cold-resistant, annual vegetable crops. The vegetation period not exceeding 2 months from seeding to full formation of head.
Upon reaching the commodity qualities, depending on the variety, may have a cylindrical, korotkoovalnym, dlinnoovalnym, dense or loose Kochanov. Average leaf length of 25 cm, a structure and color of the tabular sheets may also vary widely - from saturated colors green to light green, slightly inflated structure and wrinkled.
Chinese cabbage grown on all types of secure and open soil as a sealant for tomatoes, courgettes, cucumbers, cabbage or as a separate culture.
How to grow Chinese cabbage?
Gardeners with experience and beginners are often plagued by issues related to the cultivation of new, unfamiliar crops and cabbage, in this respect, is no exception. Here are some of them:
- How to grow Chinese cabbage in the open field?
- Is it possible to feed the plants during the growing season?
- It is preferable to seedlings or seeds?
- How and when to irrigate?
Despite its apparent simplicity, the cultivation of Chinese cabbage has its own nuances and minor tweaks, the violation of which can significantly reduce the yield and to nullify all the efforts gardeners efforts.
Which way, seedlings or seeds to plant Chinese cabbage depends on the individual circumstances ie where and how the plant will grow: in the greenhouse, on beds, in an open ground, what is the average length of day, time of planting (spring, late summer) .
Important! When planting and cultivation of Chinese cabbage in hot and / or dry season the plant is greatly in color and cabbage are not formed. In addition, the culture begins to actively produce arrows and excessive light exposure, including during the long white nights that are characteristic of some of the northern regions and Siberia.
Cultivation of Chinese cabbage in Siberia and the Urals, it is quite possible, but it is necessary to adjust the lighting is artificial, ie, select areas with shading cover or forced landing of light in the greenhouse.
- seeds - sowing is done in March, beginning of April, the end of July and in early August. . Scheme sowing 20 × 40 cm for planting in other time periods are only suitable universal grade, preferably hybrids, such as "Chinese Choice", "Ljubasha", "Nain F1»;
- Sprouts - landing is performed in the same time frame as the seeds, but as the plant has already passed the initial stage of growth (root formation, the appearance of the first leaves) the harvest can be gathered much earlier. Scheme landing 30 × 50 cm.
Important! You can not sow seeds or planting seedlings of cabbage after collecting all cruciferous crops: radish, turnip, mustard, radish, as they affect the common pests and diseases.
- Open ground:
- seeds - sowing is done after the soil warms up, usually it occurs in early May. For autumn sowing crop can begin in the second decade of July. Pre-soaking of seeds is required. Scheme sowing when growing culture as a salad 20 × 20 cm, if necessary, the formation of head - 35 × 35 cm, 50 × 50cm. Seeding of 4 g per 10 m². The best results are obtained with bran seed on ridges recessed into the soil at 10-15 mm.
- seedling - transplanting seedlings into the ground is carried out in early May. Scheme landing 30 × 50 cm. Performing the planting operation should be closely monitored, so that the root system is in any case not be damaged, to facilitate this agrotechnics process recommend grown seedlings Chinese cabbage in individual peat pots or containers, from which one can easily control the plant without deformation basal coma land.
Important! To obtain high yields necessary to monitor the compliance of selected varieties of planting intervals, ie. E. The early spring planting necessarily, but later closer to the fall, and not vice versa.
Caring for Chinese cabbage, as well as for any vegetables, it consists of watering, weeding and fertilizing plants.
- To obtain good yields crucial optimal balance between air temperature and humidity mode, this statement is particularly true during the formation of head and socket.
Humidity 65% soil.
Failure to comply with these requirements leaves are often affected by various diseases such as gray, white and black rot, so that the plant does not develop normally and heading out does not occur.
Important! Despite the fact that culture needs to be well hydrated soil, stagnant water can not stand it.
- Food - cabbage prefers fertile soil, which contains a large amount of nitrogen and calcium. But even if the land is the garden bednovato on organics and minerals - not a problem. The plant responds very well to different feeding as a natural origin (mullein), and the feeding of complex fertilizers.
- Fall - per m² necessary to add 4.5 kg of manure, dessert spoons 1,5 and 2,5 double superphosphate dessert. spoons of potassium sulfate. In the absence of the last of its components can be replaced by an ordinary wood ashes at the rate of 1 liter jar to 1 m of soil;
- before planting - introduced a solution prepared from poultry manure (10 L water and ½ kg of manure) or of eggshell (30 g of crushed shell insist 2 days in 5 liters of water.). If for some reason the autumn fertilizer into the soil is not added, before planting, when the spring digging, you need to make potassium sulfate, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate, each component is taken in the amount of 1 tbsp. l. per m².
Important! Chinese cabbage has a high ability to accumulate nitrates, so is not recommended to apply fertilizer in the growing season. All fertilizers should be made before a plant is planted on the land.
- Watering - watering in dry weather you need every day, it is better to do this way of sprinkling, in this case, the plants receive the necessary amount of moisture and at the same time, soil waterlogging occurs.
Chinese cabbage pests and methods of combating them
Pests that infect Chinese cabbage, in fact, not so much:
Given that culture has the ability to accumulate a harmful substance for pest control is not the most suitable chemicals and folk techniques that when used regularly give excellent results.
- Planting crops between the rows of tomato, onion or garlic significantly lowers the activity of crucifer flea. As more powerful tools, it is recommended to spray the plants and the soil between the rows with a special solution. For its preparation must take green tomato and potato tops (each component 200 g), and 2 large heads of garlic. All the ingredients are ground and give infusions of about a day. Cabbage photos, which is below, planted by such principle - between two beds of onions.
- Careful and systematic removal of weeds, as well prevents damage to plants crucifer flea.
- After visiting the garden of butterflies, cabbage is necessary as often as possible to inspect the lower surface of the leaves, upon detection of clutches, pest eggs are destroyed, this method, though time-consuming, but gives good results, ie. A. Significantly reduces the probability of occurrence of caterpillars.