Digging wells

How to quickly and efficiently dig a well: the analysis of self-digging technology

To live in a country house or cottage without water is impossible. Well, when the nearby river or lake, then the question of water is solved by itself. Well, if there are no buildings around natural water sources, then the owner must take care of procuring it from the ground. And then the question arises: which is better to build - well or well? If the water level in your area is on from 5 to 15 meters depth, it is best to dig a well, but if deeper, then it is necessary to equip the well. Today we tell about how and where made digging wells, on the basic nuances of construction, safety measures.

Independently determine where best to do well, so the water was close, and that the quality was satisfactory, it is impossible. On this issue is best to consult with a specialist. But there are other guidelines when choosing a place for the future the well:

  • Check with neighbors who already have wells which have the depth, what type of soil on the site, what problems were encountered during the construction of the well and position your near neighbor (preferably in higher ground area relief);
  • well it should be located at least 30 meters from latrines, garbage pits, places of animals and other sources of groundwater contamination;
  • It must take into account not only the views of the site at the moment, but also the structure, planned for the future (a barn, sauna, garden furniture, etc.), as well of the place can not be changed;
  • for convenience, the distance from the intended place of the well to the house must be optimal.

Digging wells should be planned to the very dry season (late summer - early autumn), when the water table to the lowest level.

To the well device it is best to begin in late summer and autumn, when the water table is at its lowest point

To know how to dig a well with your hands, you need to become familiar with certain technologies and to follow safety rules at the same time.

We determine the construction design

Each well is a broad shaft (circular or square), reaching ground water, suitable for human consumption. Its depth is usually about 10 meters, but there are times when the bottom of the well is at a depth of 30-35 m pit design includes.:

  • headroom - upper (aboveground) moiety;
  • mine - the well bore;
  • receiving water - the lower portion of the well shaft, where water collects.

In the lower part of the shaft is required to arrange a bottom water filter. It usually consists of 3 layers of gravel or crushed stone: the lower layer (the fine fraction) with a thickness of 10 cm, average (fraction 5-7 times larger) - 15 cm and upper (fraction even larger) - also 15 cm.

Sometimes it happens that the soil at the bottom of a very viscous - then it is necessary to build a wooden floor with holes for water, and only top pour the bottom of the filter layers.

The easiest and most user-friendly version of the device well with your hands - use of special concrete rings in the construction of the well shaft

Mine well may be made of stone, brick, wood, concrete. The most common and easiest option - to use precast concrete rings. It we take a closer look.

To figure out how much it will cost you dig a well, you need to calculate the cost of the required materials. For work required: fine and coarse crushed stone or gravel (for filter apparatus), concrete rings, staples for fastening them to each other, for sand and cement putty joints between the rings.

Obviously, an independent execution of works, of course, not without the help of a few friends or neighbors, cheaper land owner, otherwise he would have to spend money on a team of hired workers. Of course, there are special companies that are engaged in drilling wells and, if desired, and there is a decent amount to make a well-key. But if to you it is too expensive and you want to save, you can do everything with their own hands.

Since all the work will be carried out manually, you must ensure you have the following tools: shovels (large and small), buckets, chain, tripod and hoist, rope ladder. It will be necessary to build the wooden planks of the truck to move the concrete rings that are quite heavy (600 kg).

The process of digging wells involves increased danger to life and health, so you need to follow a few simple safety rules:

  1. To prevent a possible drop in the human head stones and the earth when they pulled out of the shaft, be sure to wear a protective helmet.
  2. During the work day should be checked on the strength of the rope used by hanging them a heavy load.
  3. Be sure to check the mounting strength of all parts of containers for pulling soil.
  4. Since dampness and cold are harmful to health, it is not necessary to be in the mine all day.

The order of execution of works on digging

Proceed directly to the algorithm of work:

  • At the site, where it will be located well, is marking: shaft diameter should be 10 cm larger than the diameter used concrete rings. Digging a hole to such a depth that the first ring is not completely immersed - at 8-10 cm above the ground level.
  • With the help of the trolley (which also has a height of 8-10 cm), the first ring is delivered to the pit and set, carefully checking its verticality, because even a slight misalignment affects the quality of the well as a whole. Top set and a second ring connected to the first by means of brackets (not less than 3 pieces).
  • Further deepen the pit 80 cm in the middle, then dig around it around so that the first ring is sunk deep under its own weight. If the ground is soft - it is removed in the first place from the middle of the ring, and if solid - land is taken out first under the ring that there is no impediment to his immersion, and only after settling removed seredinu.Styki threaded ring seal, laying tarred hemp rope and closing up their cement-sand mortar.
  • The wall of the rings should be increased, while at the bottom of the well shaft begins to emerge the water. Water together with the reclaimed sand is removed and the well is left for 12 hours to filled with water.
  • On the second day the bottom must be cleaned again. This operation is repeated until then, until the bottom of the shaft will not be visible water veins. Cover with a lid, the well is left untouched for days.
  • Again evacuated collect water and sand and placed on the bottom of filter: 10-15 cm of fine gravel, is then 30-40 cm coarse gravel (can macadam). Sufficient in the well is considered to 1.5 meter water level (approximately half rings).

Importantly, the outer sides of the rings (the space between the edges of the pit and pit walls) is filled gravel-sand mixture and tamped clay and covered with sand at ground level. The resulting clay lock will prevent the ingress of rain and melt water into the well.

The first stage well device: at the selected site excavated pit diameter 10 cm larger than the diameter special concrete well rings

The joints between the manhole rings strung carefully sealed, putting them tarred hemp rope and closing up their cement-sand mortar

The sides of the concrete wall of tamped clay rings at ground level and covered with sand, which will protect the well from being hit by rain

Upper (ground) of the well can be built out of wood in the form of a house or of concrete. In the second case it is necessary to put another top ring. Well covered with a lid to protect from rain and debris.

Aerial upper part of the well (called headroom) can be built of wood in the form of a house: the aesthetic, hygienic, safe

Well compulsorily covered with a lid to protect the water from dust, rain water, and also for safety reasons

Another illustrative master-class on digging the well in the country, you can see in this video. Take a look and make sure that the independent execution of all work - it is the real deal. There are also craftsmen!

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If there is no connectivity to the centralized water supply in the area, it is the only way - to dig a well on their own. Not everyone knows how to dig a well on their own, to provide access to drinking water. When the competent organization of work and the choice of a place to get a reliable source of spring water. While respecting the fundamental rules and understanding of the process, to dig a well with your hands is quite simple.

What is important to know about digging wells

Drinking water, which is expected in the construction of the well should be clean and tasty, but it does not always work. Well done by all the rules, and the water in it comes sometimes tough, Foreign smell or bitter taste. To the effort was not in vain, it is important to know how and where to dig a well for the influx of crystal clear water. Ground waters occur at different levels, respectively, the water is also different in them.

Builders wells in dry areas since ancient times were especially revered by many people. It was decided to thank the heavens and bless their descendants for work, picking up the water each time. And those who fall asleep, or poisoned wells filled up with stones - people cursed to 7 generations. Now few people remember the good word of unknown workaholic, but careful treatment of water sources has survived to the present day.

Today, in a private home ownership and many decide how to find - where to dig a well? In most cases, try to dig a well as close to the structure, but it can have a negative impact on the foundation of the house or garden. The optimal interval - the order of 5-6 meters.

Carry water away buckets - also inappropriate, but there are embodiments of a water supply under pressure or using a pump. In this case, it is easy to organize the flow of water into the house. But it is important to consider the drainage of mud to the water supply and discharge of sewage were in different locations plot.

Well dig their own, in compliance with all safety regulations, or trust is skilled with the technique. On a site with a low level of groundwater from wells earth recess doing a few employees using simple tools or equipment. A good example - the well with his own hands the video at the end.

Pay attention to the neighbors - in your area enough wells in shallow water? If you are a great-tasting water - this can be done on the site. But it happens that in the range of 2-3 km well water tastes different.

Aquifers occur at different levels, so in some places there are wells to a depth of 25 - 30 m. In this case, do not think, how many meters to dig a well - it is advisable to drill artesian wells. Work is easiest on the sandy soil, clay dig harder stones most difficult to remove and raise winch up. Sometimes a layer of stones as large as the breed is so hard and stubborn to extract what is necessary to abandon the solution to the question - how to do well with your hands.

The easiest way - to begin with mechanized excavation bucket of soil. Next, manually go into the water until the walls and leveling for laying of concrete rings. However, the technique is possible to adjust not in all the places where they plan to dig a well on the site.

All work can carry 2-3 people - with a shovel, a crowbar and a bucket to the ground on the winch. But the more one can replace each other during the digging of a well, the faster and easier prodelyvat milestones. Divide the first primer crowbar or a pick, and shovel digging bucket is selected, which raises various devices.

How to determine the optimal location for the well

It happens that none of the neighbors are no wells in the area - is to ask the reason not to spend efforts in vain. Difficulties arrangement potable water source depends on many factors, including:

  • topography;
  • climatic conditions;
  • the type of ground and lying in their beds;
  • hydrogeological conditions;
  • improper water quality (dirty, turbid, with a strange taste or hue).

Caution: putrefactive drinking and contaminated water (vadose) that may get into the well of the marshland, surrounding burial grounds, cemeteries, chemical landfills, dumps, car tanks for waste water or sewage. It is not necessary to dig a well near a farm or piggery, particularly noticeable at the bottom of the slope area. Remember, always digging wells above a source of pollution.

The golden rule: Before the well should be at least 30 - 35 m from the cesspool toilet, rubbish ditch, manure piles, garbage pits or septic tanks. Do not put the well near the sauna or steam bath and a car wash.

Those who are mastering uninhabited land, it is necessary to drill a special exploration wells - for preliminary exploration of the aquifer. Although it is time-consuming and costly method, but it is the most reliable and accurate.

The most difficult to dig wells in the rocky mountainous terrain - it is difficult to determine the level of the aquifer. On the way to it can come across large boulders, which are difficult to remove and lift out even reliable winch. If the neighbors have wells, you can learn from them:

  • the depth in the area of ​​groundwater;
  • the optimum time for excavation;
  • especially local breeds.

To determine the place where to dig a well, and how to determine the level of groundwater, are not only exploration but also for other methods. Some people are looking for water, rotating bezel, the other "cause of spirits", but it is much easier to trust devices. Sensitive barometer picks between humidity and atmospheric pressure. The heat Meteorological method shows places with wet ground - the water layer forms a low similarity of fog or dew on the ground.

Identify the proximity to the surface of the groundwater exploration using drilling or competent assessment of relief. It is important ratio of lowlands, valleys and hollows, raising groundwater. Such a method veduny used for a long time to find a good place for a new settlement - with plenty of drinking water.

Wells are sometimes made on the slopes or on the river bank. To get to the source of drinking water on a steep slope - it is difficult, requires the construction of reliable steps to raise the water at any time of the year! But this method is used in the mountains and in the forest, where there is no other possibility to equip the well. There are a lot of flat land where you can dig wells almost everywhere, but it will be different depths.

Caution: Unsuitable places for digging wells - beams slopes, ravines, beaches rivers, gutters and other places where natural or artificial means there is drainage of groundwater.

When is it best to dig the well tank arrangement

Discussing the question, what time to dig a well, not all agree. It is clear that the frozen ground to dig uncomfortable, but the water does not come from below. During the heavy rains and likelihood of landslides digging the ground is also not advisable - the mud flow excavated soil can slide back into the pit. It is also desirable to dig wells during floods and the spring thaw, even when the frozen soil below, and the upper layer is saturated with moisture.

The frozen ground is a high probability - to miss the depth of the well. But it is in the late winter aquifer is at its lowest level. Experts suggest when to dig a well - in some regions until the end of winter and the beginning of autumn there is such a possibility. Here is a diagram of the well with his own hands:

Varieties of groundwater:

  • crude perched - the closest to the earth's surface, it should not fall into the well shaft, otherwise the water will be muddy, hard and with a taste;
  • groundwater - are looking for, are shallow and under pressure, often forming springs, which can be purified and used in place of the well;
  • Artesian - lies a layer deeper, more like a crystal-clear mineral water from the well is under high pressure, sometimes a fountain.

The wells are of different types, taking into account the purpose, method of construction and a variety of exterior design:

  • drilling;
  • key or spring;
  • Shaft (direct rounded recess);
  • tubular (column, with removal of water out).

Everyone has their own advantages, but to equip the country well from the tube with your hands is more complex than an ordinary mine. Traditional pit type is easier to dig its own, it is easier in the course of work to adjust the depth and breadth, build walls and bottom. In the mine pit is easier to work with a shovel, a crowbar or a pick - these are explained by the usual dimensions of the usual childhood wells.

Column or tubular type well it's best to do in the areas where the aquifer is close to a small diameter. Usually this is done using a simple pump and conduit. Labor and financial investment in their construction are almost identical. But we need to have some knowledge of hydraulic engineering to the column from the water to the house directly from the well.

According to the filling shaft-type wells are distinguished:

  • deep and shallow;
  • complete and incomplete (the water level varies according to the season).

In total wells also equipped with an additional tank - the sump, which is designed to ensure that it is mine to fill in a drought to support the balance of receipt and use of water.

There are also indoor and open wells - the type of purified spring, which can be found in the forest. In the Carpathians, for example, decided to regularly clean the spring, put pointers, equipped with an overhead mug or jug ​​for digging and benches for rest.

The trunk of mine well strengthen in different ways - masonry (as in antiquity), concrete rings or monolithic concrete circle. There are patterns laid out inside the logs of wood rot-or brick walls. But for the well in the country it's best to make a concrete pit with their hands. Separate concrete rings after unloading from transport can be dug up the well shaft to roll your own.

The main components of coal mine pit:

  • shaft - main underground part, where the most important to make a sturdy strengthening walls to avoid collapse of the whole structure and impurities from groundwater and the vadose precipitation;
  • the sump or water inlet - tank for collecting and storing pure water, and protecting against freezing;
  • headroom - building construction to protect drinking water from external contamination and to facilitate its submission suggests decorative and purely practical elements.

Safety during the construction of the well

1. All work related to dredging, produced in overalls, gloves and protective helmet.

2. Used Equipment pre-check on the integrity of the ropes - strong, bucket - firmly fixed winch - works flawlessly.

3. Do not rush with the excavation and lifting the bucket to the ground with a stone or binding - carelessness can lead to breakage and possible injury.

4. Bucket better cling to a strong rope with a carabiner, than to hope for a trusted site.

5. Copan at a depth on the belt mesh lifeline in case of injury and poisoning methane.

Digging very deep well is unsafe or uneconomic. You may experience problems with methane, is recovered from the subsoil, which is difficult to recognize the symptoms of a minor.

Note: If there is even a slight dizziness, weakness, nausea, shortness of breath while digging deepening - digging urgently needs to raise the hoist to the surface!

gassed shaft checked candle - or it enhances combustion or extinguished. Stretched on a frame tent repeatedly lowered and raised in the mine - for ventilation. You can use construction equipment for pressurizing and venting.

The process of digging wells and deepening of the mine equipment

1. Well dig vertical cylinder section of approximately one and a half meters - for optimal use of the tool. Under the concrete ring shaft width is calculated according to their diameter. Works team of 3 people, where the first digs, the other takes on the rope bucket of excavated earth, and the third is shipping the ground or resting, then change.

2. It is important to properly dig a hole for the installation of the first ring - smooth and rounded walls, bottom - horizontal. When the first ring gently lowered into the future source of water on land removed rings inside. As the excavation of the ground they will sink under the weight.

3. When the first ring deepen at a sufficient level, it can be put on top and following another - to reach the water level. Sometimes they retard shrinkage if go smoothly, and to accelerate the sides of the top ring can be stacked sandbags.

4. Rings bonded steel rods or plates. The rods are part of the rings in the form of reinforcement loops and extend, and they are connected by bolts, the plate is attached to the rings in the prepared holes.

5. The process of excavating continued until the water and further, the first pump pumping out the dirty water. When the water comes to actively or swing, stop digging.

6. Before you leave the mine as well, spread on the bottom of the clean large stones. Top line the bottom of the well washed gravel or gravel. This layer serves for fine particles infiltrate the soil, so that it is not typed into a bucket of water.

7. The first water from the well to pump better, and if not possible - not used to drinking a couple of weeks. well washing is complete after 10 - 18 hours of pumping, that is, to full transparency.

8. It is necessary to consider the removal of the excavated soil from the mine, especially when the aboveground part of the construction is not completed. Otherwise, with the first shower of dirt can penetrate into the well.

9. design tip must be provided "zamok9raquo; or a small recess shed water which is closed by a blind area. Upon completion, perform well head or "vershinu9raquo; well, that can be done decently and reliably and is very beautiful, as an element of landscape design - examples pictured in this article.

About digging a well and

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How to dig a well with their hands - step by step guide

It is not possible to present the cottage or country house, where there is no water supply. In the absence of land next to the pond with fresh water has no choice but to dig a well, or to equip the well. If the depth of the ground water is not more than 15m, it is better to choose the first option.

Well for the abstraction of drinking water

We describe in detail how to properly equip the well with their hands in the country, when it is best to dig and where, as well as give tips.

The first thing you must do before you start to dig - to determine the optimal location for a well. Ideally, it is desirable to bring a specialist to resolve the issue.

You can try to pick a place on their own, in this case, we recommend to ask the nearest neighbors (if they already have a dug well), how deep they dug, the composition of the soil, as well as learn about other nuances associated with this process.

Many dig a well right in the garden, it makes sense, because it does not need to carry water for irrigation from a distance.

When choosing a site also necessary to consider the sanitary rules governing the location of wells and boreholes with respect to sources of pollution. According to these rules, water extraction must be arranged at a distance closer than 30 meters to toilet, the sump and the other sites, ground water pollutants (including elements of battery drain, as a septic tank and drainage field).

Note that you can dig a well near the wellbore, it will not conflict with the sanitary standards.

If in the future it is planned the construction of buildings on the plot, it is also necessary to take into account, as well move (to dig a new pit and bury the old) will be problematic.

It is not recommended to place the well on quicksand (water-bearing sand) - this significantly complicates the task.

It is not recommended to dig a hole under the well in the winter and spring. In cold weather, the soil is frozen, which makes it difficult earthworks certainly can not dig by hand, and an excavator, but that will entail additional costs. Spring digging also difficult because of the high water table, which will hinder the process considerably.

The ideal time for excavation August - September.

Before to proceed to the arrangement of the well in the area near the house, you need to decide on the design, to explore the process technology and familiar with the safety rules.

The figure shows the device with the well shaft of concrete rings.

An example of a simple design of the well

  • A - the superstructure, providing protection from dust penetration (headroom);
  • B - waterproofing lock from clay;
  • C - bottom of gravel filter is usually a three-layer. Origin - of the large grain size of 15cm, medium - 10cm, the bottom - of fine aggregate;
  • D - perched;
  • E - shaft of reinforced concrete rings;
  • F - aquifer.

The mine pit is brick, stone or wood. It can go to a depth of 10-15 m, but there are constructions, the bottom of which is 30 meters below ground level. If it is viscous, constructed wood flooring, and is already on top of it is organized by a bottom filter.

Note that we have given of an apparatus on the basis of concrete rings, because this design is optimal.

To work needed to prepare the following materials:

  • multiple concrete rings and their number depends on the depth of the mine, standard dimensions are shown;

The dimensions of the rings

  • material for the bottom of the filter (fine gravel and coarse fractions);
  • staples (a means for binding ring);
  • ingredients for cement mortar, which will be smeared out seams.

The total price of the materials will show how much the construction will cost a concrete ring well (provided that dig it, and perform other work, you will be on their own). Naturally, the cost will increase significantly if all the manual work will carry a team of builders.

It is necessary to warn that the weight ZHBT rings pretty impressive, and move them up and not be able to install without any help. If you have no one to call for help, you have to hire workers or to apply to the construction company, which specializes in this area.

Note that this fun is not cheap, for example, in the city of Vyborg to dig a hole under the mine and organize a well depth of 9 meters will cost about 70 thousand rubles.

should be prepared in advance, taking into account that the excavation will be carried out without the use of special equipment:

  • a few shovels and buckets;
  • tripod mounted with its lifting mechanism;
  • ladder and rope.

Given the dangers of this process, observe the following simple rules will minimize the risks:

  • at work use protective helmet, it will protect your head upon impact by the variety of objects, such as stones or pieces of ground;
  • each time before starting work, check the strength of the rope. Load runaway from height can cause serious injury. From these considerations must be checked for fastening containers of excavation;
  • at a depth of cold and damp conditions are harmful to health, so during a break in the work better leave mine.

Video: How to dig a well to one - step by step guide

When the preparations are completed, you can start the process, the following sequence of actions:

  • produced markings, considering that the mine should be wider rings about 10-15 cm;
  • digging a pit so that when placed in its first ring, the edge of the land was higher by about 10 cm;

Setting the first ring

  • set the ring into the hole, it is important to avoid deviations in the vertical, since this will affect the quality of the entire structure;
  • the second ring to the first set, after which both products are bonded brackets (should be no less than three);
  • If the pit dug in the soft ground, it goes deep into the heart, and then dig around around, as a result of the ring will sink under its own weight. In the case where the solid ground, the ground must be excavated from the ring, and after immersing the soil is removed from the middle;
  • the joints between the rings have to be carefully sealed, for this purpose, the gap between them tightly stuffed tarred hemp rope, after which the joint is sealed by means of cement;

sealing

  • mine is built up until the bottom of the water, then it and the reclaimed sand is removed and there is a break of 12 hours to a day to fill the water of the well of the barrel;
  • after the mine was filled, start cleaning the bottom, this procedure will have to be repeated several times until the water veins show up, then make a break for a day;
  • the next day, the water is pumped out, and the opened bottom is poured gravel filter;

bailing

  • is not necessary that there was a high level of water in the shaft, it is enough 1.5 meters (about six rings);
  • the gap between the walls of the pit and the outer surface of the rings is necessary to fill with sand gravel mixture, and then proceed to forming the clay lock. He will not allow the penetration of rain and melt water into the mine;
  • after digging a well done, you can proceed to the construction of the well head, this work can be considered completed.

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