- 1 How to connect a single-phase motor
- 2 How to connect a single-phase motor via a condenser: starting, operating and mixed incorporating embodiments
- 3 Schemes motor connected via capacitors
How to connect a single-phase motor
Most often, to our homes, cottages, garages placed upon single-phase 220 V. Because the equipment and all homemade products are doing so that they work on this power supply. This article will look at how to make a connection pravlilno single-phase motor.
Asynchronous or collector: how to distinguish
Generally, the motor type can be distinguished on the plate - type plate - on which the written data and its type. But this is only the case if it is not repaired. After all, under the cover can be anything. So if you are not sure, it is better to determine the type yourself.
It looks like the new single-phase capacitor motor
How are collector engines
Distinguish between asynchronous and commutator motors can be on a structure. We definitely have a collector brush. They are located near the reservoir. Another mandatory attribute of the engine of this type - the presence of a copper drum, divided into sections.
These engines are built only single-phase, they are often installed in household appliances, since they allow to obtain a large number of turns at the start and after the crackdown. They are also convenient because they make it easy to change the direction of rotation - it is only necessary to change the polarity. It is easy to arrange a change of speed of rotation - changing the voltage amplitude or angle of its cutoff. Because these engines are used in most of the household and construction equipment.
The structure of the commutator motor
Disadvantages kolelktoryh engines - high noise operation at high speeds. Remember the drill, grinder, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, etc .. The noise at their work worth decent. At low speed commutator motor is not so noisy (washing machine), but not all tools work in this mode.
Second unpleasant moment - the presence of brushes and continuous friction leads to a need for regular maintenance. If the current collector is not clean, pollution graphite (from washable brushes) may lead to the fact that adjacent sections to connect the drum, the motor simply stops working.
The induction motor has a rotor and a starter, can be one and three phase. This article discusses the connection of single-phase motors, because it focuses only on them.
Induction motors differ low noise level during operation, because are installed in equipment, operating noise is critical. This conditioners, split systems, refrigerators.
The structure of the induction motor
There are two types of single-phase asynchronous motors - bifilar (with the start winding) and condenser. The whole difference lies in the fact that the bifilar winding single-phase motors launcher is only open until the motor acceleration. After it is turned off by a special device - puskozaschitnoy centrifugal switch or relay (refrigerators). This is necessary, since after the dissolution of it only reduces efficiency.
The capacitor single-phase capacitor motors winding works all the time. Two winding - Main and auxiliary - are offset from each other by 90 °. With this change, you can change the direction of rotation. Condenser for such engines is usually attached to the body and on this basis it is easy to identify.
More accurately determine bifolyarny or capacitor motor before you can use the measurement coils. If the resistance of the auxiliary winding is less than twice (the difference may be even more significant) likely is bifolyarny engine and this auxiliary winding pad, and hence should be present in the circuit switch or starting relay. The capacitor motors both windings are constantly in operation and connection of single-phase motor is possible through the normal button, a toggle switch, automatic.
Wiring diagrams of single-phase asynchronous motors
Motor connection with the need to start winding button, which one of the contacts after the open. This opens the contacts will have to be connected to the starting coil. In the shops there is a button - it PNVS. It has an average contact closes at the retention time, and the two outer remain in the closed position.
Appearance button PNVS and the state of the contacts after the "Start" button is released "
First, with the help of measurements which define the winding work, which - launcher. Typically, the output from the motor has three or four wires.
Consider the case of a three-wire. In this case the two windings have merged, that is, one wire - total. Take the tester, measure the resistance between all three pairs. Working has the minimal resistance, the average value - start winding and the largest - is the total output (measured by resistance of the two series-connected windings).
If the findings of the four, they called in pairs. Find two pairs. One in which the resistance is less than - working, in which more - launcher. Thereafter connect one wire from starting and operating coil, derive common wire. Total remains three wires (as in the first version):
With these three wires and are working on - ispolzuem to connect single-phase motors.
With all these
- Connect a single-phase motor start winding through PNVS button
connect the single-phase motor
All three wires connect to the button. It also has three pins. Required starting wire "to plant the average contact (Which is closed only in the start-up time) the other two - in the extremeue (arbitrarily). By extreme input terminals PNVS connect a power cable (220 V), the average contact connect with the working bridge (note! not with the overall). That's the whole circuit of the single-phase motor start winding (bifolyarnogo) via a button.
When connecting a single-phase capacitor motor, there are options: There are three wiring diagrams and all capacitors. Without them, the motor hums but does not start (if you connect it to the scheme described above).
Wiring diagrams for single-phase capacitor motor
The first scheme - with a capacitor in the power supply circuit starting winding - well-run, but the power issue is not rated, and are much lower. The scheme of inclusion with the capacitor in the work of the winding connection circuit has the opposite effect: not very good performance at the start, but a good performance. Accordingly, a first circuit is used in devices with a heavy startup (mixer, for example), and a working condenser - if need good performance.
There is a third option to connect a single-phase motor (asynchronous) - set both capacitors. It is obtained somewhere between the embodiments described above. This scheme is implemented and more often. She's in the picture above in the middle or on the photo below in more detail. At the organization of the scheme also need a button type PNVS, which will connect the capacitor not only start time until the motor "acceleration". Then two windings remain connected, and through the auxiliary condenser.
Connecting a single-phase motor: circuit with two capacitors - the workers and the trigger
When implementing other schemes - one capacitor - need regular button, or automatic switch. There all just connected.
There are quite a complicated formula which can calculate the required capacity exactly, but it is possible to manage the recommendations that are derived on the basis of many experiments:
- a run capacitor charge rate of 0.7-0.8 microfarads per 1 kW of engine power;
- launcher - in 2-3 times more.
The operating voltage of the capacitor must be 1.5 times higher than the line voltage, i.e., the network 220 take the container to an operating voltage of 330 V or higher. And to start passing is easier to look for a special starting circuit capacitor capacitor. They are present in the labeling or the word Start Starting, but you can take the usual.
Changing the direction of movement of the motor
If the engine is running after connecting, but the shaft rotates in the wrong direction, which you need to, you can change this direction. This is done by changing the auxiliary winding coil. When collecting circuit, one of the wires applied to the button, the second conductor coupled to the operating coil and deduced total. That's where we have to shift the conductors.
How things can look like in practice
Motor start winding. It runs without capacitor. It rotates in one direction only. In another buzzing. Do I need to run it through a condenser or so and not be burned? (Grindstone glued with sandpaper).
men. Prompt advice. 2.2 kilowatt engine compressor. parents centrifugal switch. could not buy. I can not find one. Chinese compressor. Verk. how to bypass the centrifugal switch on kmpresore. that can be used to put it worked as before. involved and include. job thanks. or can someone from Kirovograd there will all repaired. $$$. thanks in advance.
Prompt please start winding burned, the operating rate is subject to exploitation or all of ...?
You can try to rewind the starting coil.
How to connect a single-phase motor via a condenser: starting, operating and mixed incorporating embodiments
The technique often used asynchronous motors type. Such units are simple, good performance, low noise, ease of operation. In order to rotate the induction motor, requires a rotating magnetic field.
This field is easily created in the presence of a three-phase network. In this case, enough motor stator positioned three windings arranged at an angle of 120 degrees from each other and connect them to the appropriate voltage. And a circular rotating field starts to rotate the stator.
However, appliances are typically used in houses, which often have only a single phase electric network. In this case, commonly used single-phase asynchronous motor type.
Why use a single-phase motor start-up through the capacitor?
If the motor stator placed one winding, then with an alternating sinusoidal current formed therein a pulsating magnetic field. But this field will not be able to force the rotor to rotate. it is necessary to start the engine:
- Place on the stator additional winding angle of about 90 ° relative to the working coil;
- in series with additional windings to enable the phase-shifting element, for example, a capacitor.
Options to include schemes - which method to choose?
Depending on the method of connecting the capacitor to the motor distinguish such schemes:
The most common method is the scheme starting capacitor.
In this case, the capacitor and start winding included only at the time of starting the engine. This is due to the property of his unit to continue rotation even after turning off the coil. For such inclusion is most commonly used button or switch.
Since the launch of the single-phase motor with capacitor occurs rather quickly, the additional winding runs short time. This allows for economy carry it out wire with a smaller cross section than the main winding. In order to prevent overheating in the auxiliary winding circuit is often added to the centrifugal switch or thermostat. These devices disable it at a set engine speed or at a certain strong heating.
The operating principle of the magnetic actuator based on the magnetic field occurs by passing electricity through the retractor spool. Learn more about how to manage engine and without reversing read in a separate article.
Better performance can be obtained using schemes operating capacitor.
In this circuit the capacitor after the engine is not disabled. Proper selection of the capacitor to a single-phase motor may be compensated for field distortion and to improve unit efficiency. But for such a scheme deteriorating starting performance.
A compromise solution is to choose a scheme with starting and running capacitors. For this scheme work and starting characteristics are compared with averages discussed earlier schemes.
In general, if a single-phase motor is connected through a capacitor requires a large starting torque, is selected from the trigger circuit, and when this is not necessary - with the working.
Connecting the capacitor to run single phase motors
Before connecting to the engine, you can check on the performance of the condenser multimeter.
When you select a scheme from the user always has the possibility to choose the scheme that suits him. Usually, all the findings and conclusions of the capacitor windings are derived in the motor terminal box.
The presence of three-conductor wiring in a private home is to use the earthing system, which can be done by hand. How to replace the wiring in an apartment on the template, can be found here.
- The single-phase induction motor is widely used in household appliances.
- To run such unit need more (launcher) winding and the phase-shifting element - capacitor.
- There are a variety of single-phase electric motor connection diagram through the condenser.
- If it is necessary to have a large starting torque, the circuit is used with starting capacitor, if necessary, to obtain good engine performance diagram used with the run capacitor.
A detailed video on how to connect a single-phase motor via a capacitor
I rossoshanka juicer when the motor hums and gaining momentum. What could it be?
Prompt it is possible to start the engine fan heaters without capacitor?
I, too, lawn mower engine will not start. I was in the water. Dry well. When the hums but does not rotate. Push-rotor begins to rotate. Condenser normal replaced. What could it be?
open to final year at winding, remember, too, was such garbage, I have long suffered, rang and found a break not only the device but also vizualno saw how one wire thin as a hair melted
Thank you! Cool video, really helps.
I was covered with lawn, there are two output to razetku through on and two on the condenser. Just do not know how much and what kind of capacitor to capacity, should be put. Help.
Correct an article on the calculation of the capacitor.
It is there to improve?
Hello. Thank you for the lesson. I think that the same applies to single-phase motors on the automatic water pumping plant. Stopped to start an engine, run capacitor began to smell like plastic paint. He took off and verify that the performance. Clem is not short-circuited. Consistent with the stated capacity. The outlet charge, discharge is necessary. But the smell began to manifest itself again. Buy a new 16 mF and 450 V. I think that if it is put, the problems with the launch will be no more.
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Schemes motor connected via capacitors
Induction motors are widely used because they are quiet and easy to operate. This is particularly true with three phase squirrel asinhronnikov their rugged construction and ruggedness.
The basic condition for converting electrical energy to mechanical energy is the fact of a rotating magnetic field. To generate such a field requires a three-phase network, wherein the electrical winding must be shifted between a 0 to 120. Due to the rotating field, the system will work. However, household appliances, are generally used in houses, having only a single phase network 220 V.
Why start the engine 220 is used in the condenser?
To start define some terminology. Condenser (lat condensatio -. «Accumulation") - is an electronic component that stores electrical charge and consisting of two closely spaced conductors (usually the plates) separated by a dielectric material. Plates accumulate electrical charge from the power source. One accumulates positive charge, and the other - negative.
Capacity - a quantity of electric charge that is stored in the electrolyte at a voltage of 1 volt. Capacity is measured in units of farads (F).
The connection method of the engine through the condenser - the method used to achieve the soft starter unit. On the stator single-phase squirrel cage engine is placed in addition to the main electrical winding another. The two windings are correlated with each other at an angle of 90 0. One of them is working, its purpose to make the motor run from the network 220, and the other - the auxiliary, we need to start.
Consider the capacitor wiring diagrams:
- with switch
- directly, without switch;
- parallel connection of the two electrolytes.
By winding asinhronnika connected phase-shifting capacitor. The connection is made in a single-phase network 220 by a special scheme.
Here it is seen that the electrical winding is connected directly to the power line 220, is connected in series with an auxiliary capacitor and a switch. The latter is designed to disable the additional winding from the power supply after running.
The switching device is configured to remain closed and maintain the auxiliary winding to operate as long as the motor is started and accelerated to approximately 80% of full load. At this speed, the switch opens, cutting off the chain of the auxiliary winding from the power source. Then the motor operates as an induction motor on the primary winding.
The scheme is identical to the condenser motor, but without switch. Starting torque is only 20-30% of full load torque.
The use of this type of single-phase motors are generally limited to direct drive loads such as fans, blowers, or pumps, which do not require high starting torque. Various modifications to circuits with preliminary calculation of the required capacitance for connecting to the motor 220 V.
It should be noted that the provision of the best characteristics needed when changing engine load. Increasing the capacitance leads to a decrease in resistance in the AC circuit. True replacement of the electrolyte tank complicates the circuit.
Wiring of the two electrolytes that are connected in parallel to the motor, is shown below. When connected in parallel, the total capacitance is the sum of capacities of all connected electrolytes.
Cs - a start capacitor. The magnitude of the capacitive reactance X is smaller, the more electrolyte container. It is calculated as follows:
It should be borne in mind that at 1 kW have a working capacity of 0.8 uF and for starting require more capacity by 2.5 times. Before connecting to the engine must "chase" through a capacitor meter. Picking up the parts you need to keep in mind that the starting Conder must be a voltage of 380 V.
To control the inrush currents (control and limitation of their size) was used frequency converter. This connection scheme ensures a quiet and smooth running of the motor. The principle of operation is used in pumps, refrigeration systems, air compressors and the like. D. Machines of this type have a higher efficiency and productivity than their working only to the primary electrical winding.
Methods of connecting the three-phase motor
Attempt to adapt some of the equipment meets certain difficulties because the three-phase asinhronniki mostly be connected to the 380 VA in the house at all network 220V three-phase engine, but to connect to a single-phase network - it is quite feasible task.
- The inclusion of the three-phase asynchronous motor.
- Connecting the engine to the three-phase 220 V, with reverse and control button.
- Connect the three-phase windings of the motor and run as a single phase.
- Other possible methods for the compounds of three-phase motors.
Asinhronniki to 220 are widely used in everyday life. Based on the desired task, there are various methods of connecting the single-phase and three-phase motor via a condenser: to ensure a smooth start-up or improve performance. It is always possible to easily achieve the desired effect.