How to connect a magnetic contactor

How to connect a magnetic contactor

To supply power to motors or any other apparatus used contactors or magnetic actuators. Devices for frequent switching on and off. Wiring diagram of the magnetic starter for single-phase and three-phase and will be discussed further.

Contactors - what is the difference

And contactors and motor starters are designed for closing / opening of contacts in electrical circuits, usually - power. Both devices are assembled on the basis of the electromagnet can operate in DC and AC power different - from 10 V to 440 V DC and 600 V AC. are:

  • a number of work (power) contacts, through which voltage is applied to the load hook;
  • a number of auxiliary contacts - for the organization of signal circuits.

So what is the difference? What is the difference contactors and motor starters. First of all, they differ in the degree of protection. Contactors have powerful interrupters. From this follow two other differences: because of the blowout contactors have a large size and weight, and are used in high current circuits. At low currents - up to 10 A - produced exclusively starters. They, by the way, large currents are not produced.

Appearance is not always so different, but it also happens

There is another design feature: starters are available in a plastic case, they removed the outside only pads. Contactor, in most cases, do not have housing, must therefore be installed in protective casings or boxes, which protect against accidental contact with live parts as well as rain and dust.

In addition, there are some differences in the appointment. Actuators are designed to run asynchronous three-phase motors. Because they have three pairs of power contacts - to connect three phases and one auxiliary through which power continues to be supplied to the engine is running after the "start" button is released. But as the work of a similar algorithm is suitable for many devices that are connected through their wide range of devices - lighting circuits, a variety of devices and appliances.

Probably because the "filling" and the functions of both devices do not differ in many price lists starter called "small-sized contactors".

To better understand the magnetic circuit connecting the actuator, it is necessary to understand its structure and principle of operation.

Basis starter - core and inductor. The yoke consists of two parts - the movable and fixed. They are made in the form of letters "W" set "down" to each other.

The lower part fixed to the body and is fixed, the upper spring-loaded and can move freely. In the bottom of the slots of the magnetic coil is installed. Depending on how the wound coil, changing the nominal value of the contactor. There is a coil of 12 V, 24 V, 110 V, 220 V and 380 V. The upper part of the magnetic circuit, there are two groups of contacts - mobile and immobile.

Apparatus magnetic starter

In the absence of spring power squeeze the upper part of the magnetic circuit, the contacts are in the initial state. When the voltage (start button is pressed, for example) coil generates an electromagnetic field that attracts the upper part of the core. In this case, the contacts change their position (in the photo image on the right).

If the power voltage electromagnetic field also disappears, the springs press the movable part of the magnetic circuit upwards, contacts return to their original state. This is the principle of the eklektromagnitnogo starter: when applying voltage contacts are closed, with the loss - open. Applied to the contacts and connect them can be any voltage - even constant, though variable. It is important that its parameters were no longer declared by the manufacturer.

It looks like an exploded view

There is one more nuance: the starter contacts can be of two types: normally closed and normally open. Of the names should be their principle of operation. A normally closed contact at operation turned off, normally open - closed. For power supply, use the second type, it is the most common.

Wiring diagrams magnetic actuator with a coil 220 in

Before we proceed to the schemes deal with what and how these devices can be connected. More often than not, it requires two buttons - "start" and "stop". They can be made in separate housings, and may be a single body. This so-called push-post.

The buttons can be in one package or in different

With separate buttons is clear - they have two contacts. One is energized, it goes from the second. In the post, there are two groups of contacts - two for each button: two on the start-up, two feet on each artist with his hand. Also, there is usually a terminal for ground connection. Nothing too complicated.

Connecting with the starter coil 220 to the network

Actually, a lot of connectivity options contactors, describe a few. Wiring diagram of the magnetic starter for single-phase network is simpler, because start with it - it will be easier to understand further.

Feeding, in this case 220, the floor to the coil terminals which are designated A1 and A2. Both terminals are located at the top of the housing (see photo).

It can supply power to the coil

If these contacts connect cord with plug (as in the photo), the device is in operation after inserting the plug into the socket. By the power terminals L1, L2, L3 can thus apply any stress and remove it can be activated when the starter with contacts T1, T2 and T3, respectively. For example, L1 and L2 inputs can apply a DC voltage from the battery, which will fuel some sort of device that is connected to the outputs have to T1 and T2.

Connecting contactor coil 220 in

When connecting single-phase power to the coil does not matter at what conclusion apply zero, and on which - phase. You can throw the wire. Even more often in the A2 phase serves as a contact for the convenience of the displayed still on the lower side of the body. And in some cases it is more convenient to use, and "zero" to connect to the A1.

But, as you know, such a scheme is the connection of magnetic switch is not particularly convenient - and you can directly leads from the power source file, embedding a conventional switch. But there is much more interesting options. For example, supply power to the coil is possible through the time switch or a light sensor, and connected to the contacts of street lighting power line. In this case, the phase L1 is put in contact, a zero can take, connected to respective coil output terminal (pictured above is A2).

Magnetic starters often put to the motor. Work in this mode it is more convenient in the presence of buttons "start" and "stop". Their sequences include phase supply circuit to the output magnetic coil. In this case, the circuit appears as in the figure below. note that

Magnetic circuit of the starter with the buttons

But with this method will enable the starter in only the time will be kept until the "start" button, and this is not what is required for continuous operation of the engine. Because the schema is added a so-called self-retaining circuit. It is implemented using the auxiliary contacts on the starter NO: 13 and NO 14, which are connected in parallel with the start button.

Wiring magnetic actuator with a coil 220 in the circuit and self-retaining

In this case, after the return of the Start button in the initial state, the power continues to flow through the closed contacts, as the magnet will draw already. And power is supplied until then, until the chain is broken by pressing the "stop" button or activation of the thermal relay, if it exists in the schema.

Power for the motor or other load (phase 220 V) is applied to each of the contacts indicated by the letter L, and is removed from contact located underneath labeled T.

It is shown in detail in what sequence to better connect the wires in the following video. The only difference is that there are two separate buttons are used, and the push-button station or post. Instead, it will be possible to connect a voltmeter to the motor, pump, lights, any device that is powered by 220 V network

Connecting the induction motor on the actuator 380 through the coil 220 in

This scheme differs only in that there are connected to the terminals L1, L2, L3 three-phase and three-phase and go to the load. On the starter coil - contacts A1 or A2 - Starts one phase (phase C often as less loaded), the second contact is connected to the neutral conductor. Also installed jumper to maintain power coil after releasing the START button.

Wiring phase motor starter through a 220

As you can see, the scheme has not changed much. Only it added thermal protection that protects the motor from overheating. The order of assembly - in the next video. Differs only in the assembly of the contact group - connect all the shooting phase.

Reverse wiring diagram of the motor starters through

In some cases, you must provide the rotation of the motor in both directions. For example, for a winch, in some other cases. Changing the direction of rotation occur by shifting the phase - when connecting one of the two actuators must be reversed phase (e.g., phase B and C). The circuit consists of two identical starter button unit and which comprises a common button "Stop" and two buttons "Back" and "Next".

Reversing circuit connection three-phase motor via magnetic actuators

To improve safety added thermal relay, through which the two phases, the third is fed directly, as in two protection is more than sufficient.

Starters can be a coil on 380 V or 220 V (indicated in the characteristics on the lid). If it is 220 V, is applied to the coil contacts one of the phases (any), and fed to the second "zero" from the flap. If the coil 380 B, it serves any two phases.

Also note that the wire of the power button (right or left) is not supplied directly to the coil, and a permanently closed contacts of another starter. Next to the starter coil depicted contacts KM1 and KM2. Thus realized the electric lock that prevents simultaneously supply power to the two contactors.

Magnetic switch installed with an attachment of the contact

Since the normally closed contacts are not in all starters, you can take them by installing additional power contacts, which is also called the contact attachment. This attachment is snapped into special holders, its contact groups are working together with the main body groups.

The following video realized wiring diagram of a magnetic starter with reverse on the old stand using the old equipment, but the overall course of action is clear.

The wiring diagram through the coil 220 in error.

How to connect a magnetic contactor

Before connecting to practical starter - recall useful theory: magnetic starter contactor control pulse originating from pressing the start button, via which voltage is supplied to the control coil. Hold the contactor in the ON state based on the principle self-retaining - when the auxiliary contact is connected parallel to the launcher button, thereby applying voltage to the coil, thereby removing the need to keep the start button pressed.

Disabling the magnetic actuator in this case is only possible at break control coil circuit, from which it becomes evident the need for a break contact button. Therefore, the starter control button, which is called the push-button stations, each have two pairs of contacts - normally open (open, closed, NO, NO) and normally closed (closed, NC, NC, NC)

This universalization of all the buttons push-button station is made in order to anticipate the possible schemes provide instant motor reversal. Commonly called breaking the word button "Stop9raquo; and mark it in red. Includes buttons often called launcher, home, or designated by the word "Start9raquo ;, «Forward9raquo ;, «ago9raquo ;.

If the coil is designed for operation on 220 volt, the control circuit switches the neutral position. If the operating voltage of the electromagnetic coil 380, the current flows in the control circuit, "snyatyy9raquo; the other supply terminals starter.

Wiring magnetic actuator 220 in

Here, the current to the magnetic coil CM 1 is fed through the thermal switch and the terminal connected in circuit buttons SB2 for inclusion - "pusk9raquo; and SB1 to stop - "stop9raquo ;. When we click "pusk9raquo; electric current is supplied to the coil. Simultaneously, the actuator pulls the armature core, resulting in the closure of the movable main contacts, after which the voltage is applied to the load. When you release the "pusk9raquo; there is no open circuit because parallel connection of the button holds the auxiliary contact KM1 with closed magnetic contacts. Due to this the coil enters the phase voltage L3. When you click "stop9raquo; power is turned off, the movable contacts come in a starting position, which leads to the supplied critical loads. The same processes occur when the thermal relay R - N zero gap is provided, the supply spool.

Wiring magnetic actuator 380 in

Connection 380 is virtually identical to the first embodiment, the only difference in the supply voltage of the magnetic coils. In this case, power is performed using two phases L2 and L3, whereas in the first case - L3 and zero.

The diagram shows that the actuator (5) is fed from a coil L1 and L2 phases at a voltage of 380 V. The phase L1 is attached directly thereto, and phase L2 - 2 via a button "button stop9raquo ;, 6 'pusk9raquo; button 4 and the thermal relay is connected in series with each other. The operating principle of such a scheme is as follows: After the clicking 6 "pusk9raquo button; 4 via actuated button thermal relay L2 phase voltage reaches the magnetic contactor coil 5. There retraction core locking contact group 7 for a certain load (motor M), the current is supplied, a voltage of 380 V. In the case of off "pusk9raquo; chain is not interrupted, the current flows through the contact 3 - a movable unit that closes to retract the core.

When an accident must necessarily work thermal relay 1, a pin 4 is broken, and turns off the coil return springs cause the core to its original position. The contact group is opened, removing the voltage from the emergency site.

Connecting the magnetic actuator via the key post

In this scheme include the additional start and stop buttons. Both "Stop9raquo button; a control circuit connected in series, and "Pusk9raquo button; connected parallelno.Takoe connection allows switching buttons from any post.

Here's another option. The circuit consists of a two-button fast "Pusk9rdquo; and "Stop9rdquo; with two pairs of contacts are normally closed and open. Magnetic starter with the control coil 220 V. Power buttons taken from the terminals of the power contacts starter, figure 1. The voltage suited to "Stop9rdquo button; figure 2. Passes through the normally closed contact of the jumper to "Pusk9rdquo button; figure 3.

Click "Pusk9rdquo ;, closed normally open contact figure 4. The voltage reaches the goal number 5, the coil is triggered, the core retracts under the influence of an electromagnet and drives the power and auxiliary contacts are allocated phantom.

The auxiliary contact block 6 shunts the contact "pusk9rdquo button; 4, so that when you release the "Pusk9rdquo button; starter is disabled. Disabling actuator by pressing button "Stop9rdquo ;, figure 7, the voltage is removed from the reel control and under the influence of return springs starter is switched off.

Connecting the motor via starter

Irreversible magnetic contactor

If you change the direction of motor rotation is not required, the control circuit uses two are not fixed by the spring-loaded buttons, one in normal position open - "Pusk9raquo ;, other closed -" Stop9raquo ;. As a rule, they are made in a single dielectric body, with one of them red. These buttons usually have two pairs of groups of contacts - one normally open and the other closed. Their type is defined during installation visually or by instrument.

Wire control circuit connected to the first terminal of the closed contacts "button Stop9raquo ;. The second terminal of the button, connect the two wires: one is the closest to any of the open contacts button "Pusk9raquo ;, second - connected to the control terminal on the magnetic actuators, which open when the trip coil. This open contact is connected with a short wire-driven coil terminal.

The second wire with "Pusk9raquo button; It connects directly to the terminal of the coil retraction. Thus, the managed terminal "vtyagivayuschey9raquo; It must be connected two wires - "pryamoy9raquo; and "blokiruyuschiy9raquo ;.

Simultaneously, the control contact is closed and, thanks to the closed button "Stop9raquo ;, control action on the retractor reel is fixed. When you release the "Pusk9raquo button; magnetic contactor remains closed. Opening of contacts "Stop9raquo button; causes tripping of the electromagnetic coil on the phase or neutral and the motor is switched off.

Reversible magnetic starter

To reverse the motor requires two magnetic starter, and three control buttons. Magnetic actuators are installed next to each other. For greater clarity, we note their conditionally supply terminals numerals 1-39ndash; 5, while those to which the motor is connected as a 2-49ndash; 6.

For reversing starter control circuit are connected as follows: terminal 1, 3 and 5 with corresponding numbers adjacent starter. A "vyhodnye9raquo; cross pins 2 with 6, 4 with 4, 6, 2. The wire feed motor connected to the three terminals 2, 4, 6, any starter.

In cross-connection diagram simultaneous actuation of both actuators cause a short circuit. Therefore conductor "blokiruyuschey9raquo; circuit each starter must pass first through the closed control contact the adjacent, and then - through its open. Then the second starter switching will cause disconnection of the first and vice versa.

The second terminal closed "Stop9raquo button; connected not two, but three wires: two "blokiruyuschih9raquo; and a feed button "Pusk9raquo ;, connected in parallel to each other. With such a connection scheme button "Stop9raquo; off any of the starters of switched and stops the motor.

  • Before assembling the circuit should be released from the working portion and current control to voltage tester absent.
  • Set the designation of the core voltage, which is referred to it, rather than the starter. It can be 220 or 380 volts. If it is 220, the bobbin and the phase is zero. Tension with the designation 380 - means different phases. This is an important aspect, because if the wrong connecting core can burn or not to run completely necessary contactors.
  • Button on the starter (red) It is necessary to take one red button "Stop9raquo; with closed contacts and one black or green button "Pusk9raquo inscription; to always open contacts.
  • Note that the power contactors are forced to work or stop only the phases and the zeros that come and depart, grounding conductors are always united on the terminal board to bypass the starter. To connect the core in addition to 220 volts with a terminal 0 is taken in the design of the starter organization.

And yet, you will need a useful device - probe electrician who can easily do it yourself.

Select circuit connecting magnetic starters on the principle of action

Magnetic actuators - electromechanical devices for simultaneously connecting electric power consumers to the three feed phases. The basis of his actions - the effect of the occurrence of a magnetic field by passing electric current through an inductive load (retractor spool). They are usually used to control the three-phase electric motors and, for example, in the systems of the emergency reserve input.

The main difference in the wiring diagrams and control the magnetic actuator is the type of pull-in coil it uses.

The main types of retractors coils

The retractor reel magnetic actuator is its "heart," which initiates a magnetic field by passing electric current through it, and draws the armature with three (sometimes five) pairs of movable contacts. Coil type depends on the starting voltage. They are:

  • Triggered by the voltage 220 V.
  • Rated at 380 V.

Coil terminals 220 are connected between the V phase and neutral (ground). Three hundred eighty-volt - between phases. The value of the working voltage of the coil is typically written at its output a dielectric next to the bolt for clamping the wire.

Two hundred twenty volt when the coil between the phases effectively explode.

How to connect a magnetic starter

When the armature magnetic actuator retracts into the opening of the electromagnetic coil, the two actions occurs:

  1. Closed by a pair of movable contacts with fixed anchor in the starter housing, due to which there is switching of the supply voltage and the consumer connection (motor).
  2. Triggered Group control contacts (they are closed and opened), which are connected to the "Start" and "Stop" buttons as well as the control terminals of the electromagnetic coil.

When mounting the magnetic switch with its one phase supply terminals (by the electric lines) is applied to any terminal of the coil retraction. This connection is permanent. The second terminal of the electromagnetic coil is connected to the control circuit.

To apply a single-phase high-performance devices in the network is sufficiently familiar with the following instruction.

If the coil is designed for operation on 220 V, the control circuit switches the neutral position. If the operating voltage of the electromagnetic coil 380 V, the current flows in the control circuit, "shot" with the other feed terminal starter.

Type control circuit depends on whether you are going to reverse the engine or not.

Control circuit without reversing motor

If you change the direction of motor rotation is not required, the control circuit uses two are not fixed by the spring-loaded buttons, one in normal position open - "Start", the other closed - "Stop". As a rule, they are made in a single dielectric body, with one of them red.

These buttons usually have two pairs of groups of contacts - one normally open and the other closed. Their type is determined during installation visually or using a test instrument (tester) which is included in the buzzer mode.

motion sensors are used for the organization of home lighting. How to choose them, can be found here, and especially its connection schemes disclosed herein.

"Stop" button wire control circuit connected to the first terminal of the closed contacts. The second terminal of the button, connect the two wires: one is the closest to any of the open contact "Start" button, the second - is connected to the control terminal on the magnetic actuators, which open when the trip coil. This open contact is connected with a short wire-driven coil terminal.

The second wire with the "Start" button is connected directly to the terminal of the coil retraction. Thus, to control terminals "pull-in" must be connected to two wires - a "direct" and "blocking".

Simultaneously, the control contact is closed and, thanks to the closed button "Stop", the control action on the retractor reel is fixed. When you release the button "Start" magnetic contactor remains closed. Opening the contacts "Stop" button, causes the disconnection of the electromagnetic coil on the phase or neutral and the motor is switched off.

Wiring reversing magnetic starter

Before connecting the reversing magnetic contactor, necessary to understand the intended composite circuit elements.

To reverse the motor requires two magnetic starter, and three control buttons. Magnetic actuators are installed next to each other. For greater clarity, we note their conditionally supply terminals 1-3-5 numerals, while those to which the motor is connected as a 2-4-6.

For reversing starter control circuit are connected as follows: terminal 1, 3 and 5 with corresponding numbers adjacent starter. A 'holiday' cross pins 2 with 6, 4 with 4, 6, 2. The wire feed motor connected to the three terminals 2, 4, 6, any starter.

In cross-connection diagram simultaneous actuation of both actuators cause a short circuit. Therefore, the conductor "blocking" circuit each starter must pass first through the closed control contact the adjacent, and then - through its open. Then the second starter switching will cause disconnection of the first and vice versa.

The second terminal of the "Stop" button, connect the closed not two, but three wires: two "blocking" and one feeding the "Start" button is connected in parallel to each other. In such a scheme to connect the "Stop" button turns off any of the starters of switched and stops the motor.

All installation and repair work in the installation wiring diagrams magnetic starter conducted with stress relief even if the control circuit switches the neutral.

Example of the reversing magnetic starter - connection diagram on the video

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