- 1 Gable roof with an attic with his own hands: a device, circuit, calculation of materials, step by step installation process
- 2 How to build a loft with a gable roof
- 3 How to build a mansard roof - Walkthrough
Gable roof with an attic with his own hands: a device, circuit, calculation of materials, step by step installation process
Roof room in a rustic residential house or a country house on a garden site is most convenient to arrange the roof with two slopes.
simple truss can be done independently, without lifting mechanisms and complex instruments.
The space under the traditional wooden and brick houses gable the roof is most often used as a cold attic space.
However, at low cost and well-paved roof insulation, attic can be converted into a cozy room, bedroom, children, and even the living room. the choice of the type of room under the roof will depend on the attic interior design.
In the small area of country houses build a gable roof with loft solves the problem of lack residential premises.
Features a gable roof with loft
To determine the gable roof structure should be considered:
- Layout of the house;
- Wall thickness;
- The presence of the longitudinal bearing walls.
In addition to construction factors, on the configuration choices affect the roof climate especially construction location.
For a house with a width of 6 m, located in a temperate climate zone, selected gable roof with hanging truss and the angle of slope of at least 400 degrees.
The smaller the angle of inclination not allow to arrange attic with sufficient ceiling height. In addition, the steeper the roof, the less snow and water on it delayed. From the roof, mounted at an angle 450 degrees, snowflakes slide under its own weight.
The principle of the device roof system
Carrier roof structure with hanging rafters does not require complex calculations and design solutions. The diagram shows that rafters of the gable roof garret establish a triangular arches the entire length of the house with a pitch which depends on the weight of roofing material from the crate and insulating materials. Front surface are a continuation of the walls of the house and made of the same material.
hanging rafters principle is based on spacer system. Rafters are supported at the top on each other and tightened bolt, which is attached at the height of the ceiling of the attic beduyuschego. toke It is performed in order to balance the spacing of the load acting on the house wall. At the bottom of the rafters is rigidly attached to mauerlat - wooden foundation to the roof truss construction.
mauerlat a the perimeter at home, at the upper base of the walls. Operate continuously laying a foundation beam 100 on 150 mm or 150 on 150 mm on waterproofing.
If the beam is not long enough for laying a shotgun across the wall, it connects two parts of the center of the enclosure, driving at an angle of attachment 450 degrees. Fix mauerlat to the base of the wall close to its inner edge with anchor bolts and studs.
By mauerlat metal corners attached to the vertical supports installation rafters, which makes for a better stop gashes in mauerlat bar.
Determination of structural dimensions
length Truss beams can be determined without calculation. For this:
- In the center front wall vertically mounted temporary support tied with twine on the estimated height of the ridge;
- Twine assign to the corner of the house, thus defining Skate value roof. Add to this value 60 cm at eaves and size is obtained rafter beams.
The estimated size of the hanging truss structures gable roof to the width of the house 6 m listed on drawing.
Determine the number of roof arches. For this:
- divide length buildings on distance between supports. For a small country house optimal step installation of rafters - 1m. If the length of the house - 8 m, the number of arched structures is:
Installation of roof construction
After determining the amount of consumables, proceed to mounting truss system gable mansard roof. It can be done their own hands:
- Of the two beams and tightening going triangular truss. If the roof slope is 450 degrees, then at the top boards are supported on one another at an angle 900. The upper connection metal plate is fixed. Tightening-bolt fastened with screws at the height of the proposed ceiling of the attic;
Purlins and roof waterproofing
to strengthen truss construction and laying the groundwork for roofing on the rafters set lathing.
For step-by ondulin crates, corrugated, slate or metal tiles using a board of coniferous wood. You can use the profiled bar 40x50, 50x50, 50x60 mm, but he will make heavier roofing construction.
Now consider types of waterproofing for a gable roof. For a gable roof as Gidrobarer approach:
- Bituminous roll material - traditional, inexpensive, but short-lived roof waterproofing;
- reinforced film - polyethylene reinforced synthetic thread creates a waterproof barrier between the roofing material and the wooden roof structure;
- waterproofing foil - Perforated polyethylene, which has a unique ability to pass moisture evaporation from the heater, but does not pass water inside;
- anti-condensate film designed to protect metal roofing materials from the condensate. The outer film layer is made of geotextiles which perfectly absorbs moisture, and the bottom polymeric layer is water repellent to wooden roof elements.
begin laying roll of waterproofing lower ramp edge. Subsequent rows of plank lap.
Mounting battens gable roof - phased process. Installation steps are as follows:
- Waterproofing targeting galvanized layer stapled to the rafters with a little sagging underroof for ventilation;
- To install the batten is nailed to the rafters over the wooden slats waterproofing fastening screws slat battens operate;
- The lower edge of the cornice secure the rafters;
- Across 30 cm from the eaves purlin mounted next line;
- Rows of crates are fixed in parallel with a step ledge 60 cm;
- Connect the wooden slat crates at the intersection of the rafters;
- Additional number set at 10 cm below the ridge of the roof;
- At the end rafters fixed wind trim;
- Compare the diagonal roof slopes.
After lathing truss construction embarking external facing roof roofing material.
Roofing materials and their attachment
For topcoat gable roof using modern roofing material - Ondulin, profiled, metal roofing.
Along with strength and durability, they are different easy weight, therefore suitable for lining mansard roofs.
Roofing sheets fastened with screws to a batten, beginning with the bottom row.
The amount of material calculated from the area of the roof slopes with a coefficient 1.2 to mount overlap.
Before starting the hiding flat surfaces around the flues and air ducts set aprons of metal of appropriate thickness or tailored blanks.
In conclusion Roofing secure the ridge elements and end trims.
Inside roof insulated and pave the vapor barrier.
Heat and steam room attic gable roof
Warming mansard roof produce laying thermal insulation layer in the recesses between the rafters. The use as insulation mineral wool, which has a low weight, good water vapor permeability and low thermal conductivity.
To avoid wetting the mineral wool because of condensation, it is coated "Breathable" vapor barrier layer. perforated polyethylene film, anti-condensation Multilayer coatings and diffuse membrane good job of insulation steam inside surface of the roof.
Vapor barrier is laid across the rafters, along the entire length premises, with strips overlap by at least 10 cm. Seams glued special scotch tape. To target the rafters film staples through the stapler.
At the final stage of the device attic room, internal gable roof surface sheathe sheets of plywood, drywall, paneling or other decorative coating.
For more information about how to insulate the roof and the attic right here.
While respecting the fundamental rules of the construction of a gable roof, taking into account expert advice on the selection and mounting of construction and insulation materials, attic room unit operate independently. Warm, well-ventilated attic will provide additional living accommodation and will improve the microclimate of the house.
See video installation of roof system gable mansard roof:
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How to build a loft with a gable roof
Long gone are the days when podcherdachnoe space used only for the storage of unnecessary things or as a warehouse for seasonal products. Modern homes are almost always supplemented attics - heat-insulated room residential-style, located under the roof of the building. Construction of attics - not a very complicated process, virtually no different from the usual arrangement of the roof, to build an extra room is quite possible, and with his own hands.
How to build a gable roof with an attic, some prefer to design, how to carry out insulation, insulation and finishing of the new room - this in this article.
There are many structures gable roof with loft, some are simple, others more complex and spectacular.
The most common are considered to be the roof:
- conventional dual when the same size ramps inclined at a certain angle - usually inclination is 40 to 45 degrees;
- polygonal roof perform dual bit complicated, because they consist of two elements: a ridge portion which is a conventional gable structure and the side portions, the angle of inclination which is much greater;
- Asymmetrical roof with loft also fairly common, they look impressive, but the usable space inside the attic is very small;
- poluvalmovaya roofs are also a type of bi-directional designs, based on this type of roofing is a trapezoid. Attic under such roofs are spacious, with high ceilings, and the house is protected from wind loads and heavy rainfall. However, the weight of the structure and the complexity of its implementation has not caused too much popularity poluvalmovaya roofs.
This is only a brief list of the most popular designs, which can be located under the attic.
This is the simplest version of the design that can be implemented not only for new buildings, but also for those who are already in operation. gable roof mass is not very big, so the construction of the attic will not harm the house and its supporting structures and foundation (of course, if the structure has been built based on building codes and calculations were carried out with the margin of safety).
Gable roof looks like an isosceles triangle, the side faces of which are inclined at the same angle to the base. Typically, the angle of inclination is 40 to 50 degrees - so the height of the roof will enable the arrangement of the attic with a comfortable ceiling height.
Rafters pitched mansard roof, most often set on the basis of a hanging structure - when the rafters are based only on the external load-bearing walls. This gives a greater load on the foundation and the very walls of the house, so it is recommended to strengthen the mowing rafters, struts and attendants to distribute the bursting strength.
A roof with a complex geometry, having a sectional shape of a pentagon, usually called a broken line. Very often, this construct is used just for those houses that are planned to equip the attic.
sloping design advantage is that the area of the attic underneath it will be much more than a conventional pitched roof and the height of the roof will be even less.
Making sloping roof form is much more difficult, let alone here not cope, you need at least two pairs of hands. Building materials also require more, but will be able to build a full bathroom - the attic with a ceiling height of more than 200 cm.
Roof system sloping roofs with attic different from a normal pitched roof: the upper part is performed according to the principle of hanging rafters and lateral elements made naslonnymi - opirajut rafters on the uprights.
Often found the device sloping roof with an attic, where all the lines are hanging. In this case, the house must have a central bearing wall with a separate foundation. On the ridge line set vertical posts, the lower part of which will carry some of the load on the bearing wall and the foundation under it.
This approach helps to unload the house and roof elements and make a simpler design, without the addition of rafters, struts, ties and other elements.
Features a mansard roof gable
- The possibility of increasing the living area of the house, approximately 1.5 times.
- Low cost of construction, as compared to the second floor of the superstructure, or an extension of the house.
- There is no need to strengthen the foundation and load-bearing walls of the building.
- Ease of installation and finishing.
- The rationality of the attic, in the territory of which can be equipped with a full bathroom (you need to bring all communications).
Among the shortcomings gable roof with an attic can be noted:
- The need for a higher-roof with long slopes, which increases the cost of construction and at home support the load.
- Heat loss in winter, requiring high-quality thermal insulation of the roof.
- Excessive heating of the attic in the summer, because of which will have to pay attention to the isolation room, venting and air conditioning.
One thing is clear - before deciding on the construction of a roof with an attic, you must weigh the "za9raquo; and "protiv9raquo ;. And most importantly - do all the engineering calculations to verify the possibility of the construction of a building and its safety for humans.
Everyone knows that the roof kept the rafters - they are its "skeletom9raquo ;, support. Complicated loft design often does not do some rafters, its increase with additional elements.
During the construction of roofs with attic need to know about such details as:
- Mauerlat - beams laid on the outer walls of the house with pre-waterproofing of the upper parts of the roofing material or other material.
- Rafters - or beam size 50x100 100x150 (depending on the size of the roof and the loads on it), the upper portion which converges in the ridge portion, and the bottom based on mauerlat.
- Lathing is mounted on rafters, is the basis for fixing a roofing material may be made of wooden planks, boards or plywood.
- The ridge - an upper corner of the triangle formed by the rafter. It may be performed as a separate ridge beam or beams.
- Banners and crossbars - spacers that are needed to distribute the load on the truss system and its balancing. Mounted horizontally in an upper part of the triangle trusses. It must be remembered, the higher the bolt is, the thicker and more powerful than it should be.
- Racks and grandmother - the vertical supports, which are installed under the middle of each rafter or on the ridge line. They are designed to transmit the load on the load-bearing walls of the house.
- Or mowing struts arranged at an angle, the load is transferred from the rafters at spacers.
- Lejeune - mauerlat copy of which is laid on the floor of the attic and relies on her grandmother and uprights.
- Real needed on the roofs, wider than 13 meters. This strong beam installed between the racks and arching them in opposite directions.
Stages of construction gable roof with loft
To begin any construction must be a precise calculation. Especially this part is important for the attic space - in fact, and at the top and at the bottom of the house will be people in the first place, you need to take care of their security.
Often non-professional builders forget that you need to take into account not only the weight of construction materials, insulation, and insulation. Attic will need to decorate, using heavy fillers, flooring, ceiling trim. In addition, this room will be located furniture, and the same people will be here. All of these factors be taken into account when calculating the maximum possible load on the roof and its components.
The first collected from the roof rafters should be isolated. Since the attic - living room, you need to think not only about the standard of heat, steam and water proofing, but also about protecting the room from outside street sounds. The roof will be located directly above the head of a man living in the attic, so the noise of the wind or the rain can become a real problem for him.
Conduct insulation of attics can be either on the outer edge of the roof, or on the inner contour of the attic itself. In the first case it is necessary to use a moisture resistant, non-porous materials such as mineral wool, for example. For internal insulation is fine any insulation, type Penoplex, foam or roll insulation.
It is imperative to perform a vapor barrier. The occupant will be under the roof, where it is assumed installation of heating appliances, so the difference between the outside and inside air temperatures will be essential. This will inevitably lead to condensable moist warm air, wetting insulation and roof system. To prevent rotting and heat loss, using special vapor barrier membrane.
The waterproofing layer is laid on top of a roofing pie - film designed to protect a house from moisture penetration from outside.
The very process of laying the roofing mater house with an attic is no different from the usual overlapping gable roof. But you need to choose the material, taking into account some of the nuances.
The fact that the task of the builder in this case - as much as possible to reduce the weight of the attic and all roof structures to protect the house and its supporting elements of overload.
That's why choose a roofing material for roofs with attic need something reliable, but easy. Perfect metal, Ondulin, Slate.
Selection step rafters, battens and the roofing material itself to be based on a calculation taking into account such factors as:
- expected loads from wind and snow masses;
- climatic characteristics of the region;
- area of the house and the size of the roof;
- additional structure in the form of ventilation, antennas, windows;
- Material and dimensions of the foundation and the load-bearing walls.
In addition to all the above for roofs with attic there is also the weight of finishing materials, furniture and the people inside.
It remains to mount the window, without which it will not do any attic, and the room to perform finishing in a certain style.
Constructed in this way the house can be spacious, even with a small footprint, it saves time and family funds. And to realize the idea of extending the usable area is quite possible to their own hands.
How to build a mansard roof - Walkthrough
Attic, which allows efficient use of the overlap area of a house - a rather complex structure. Usually, homeowners entrust its construction experienced craftsmen - roofers. But if you dock in carpentry and are not afraid of difficulties, you probably will be able to cope with the problem on their own. The first step - getting theoretical knowledge about how the mansard roof is calculated and built with his own hands on the individual drawings. This information is provided in the form of the walkthrough, you will find in this article.
For the device instead of a conventional attic floor attic fit the following types of roofs (depicted in the scheme below):
- conventional gable with a slope of 45 ° and more (steep);
- polygonal roof;
- hipped poluvalmovaya.
Note. As can be seen from the scheme, various poluvalmovaya coating - This complication gable roof, so treat them separately makes no sense. In terms of design interest is mnogoschiptsovaya design shown in the photo, but for its construction needs a decent experience.
Gabled mansard roof is the simplest to implement and economical in terms of material consumption. But it will have to pay less usable area and the sloping walls of the attached floor, do not allow to place tall furniture. It will not be a problem if you plan to build in the attic bedroom - the bed quietly stand near the longitudinal walls. Another way to solve the problem - to lift the truss system to the desired height, as shown in the drawing.
Roof with broken forms - the most popular option because it allows you to make a full living quarters upstairs. If you do not include it on the slopes of the protruding windows, then the mounting technology such roof gable slightly more complicated, although materials costs increased. To simplify your selection, we propose to consider and compare the 3 most common variant mansard superstructure for private homes standard size 6 x 6 m:
- Steep roof with two slopes inclined at an angle of 45 °.
- Polyline construction, where the lower rafter inclined at an angle of 60 °, and the upper - 30 °.
- Same as option 1, but farm raised to a height of 60 cm, and the rafters are at an angle of 37,5 °.
All three facilities for convenience we have represented in one figure, which can be taken as a basis for future construction.
Note. As a basic building material for the manufacture of trusses and other elements of a skeleton cross section taken board 50 x 150 mm.
To select the best of the three options offered to study the comparison table, which shows the parameters of roof space at the rate of 1 meter length of the building.
Knowing the length of roofing rays indicated in the table, it is possible to estimate the approximate rate carcass materials, coatings and insulation. The following table makes it possible to estimate the total area of the rooms on the second floor in the implementation of all three solutions in private houses with different sizes.
The rafters of the attic, built with his own hands, must during the entire lifetime of withstanding such load:
- own weight;
- weight of the roofing and insulation;
- maximum for the area wind gusts;
- the pressure of the snow cover.
Reference. When the slope of the roof 45 ° snow thereon is practically not delayed, and at 60 ° and was not considered in calculations. But increasing wind pressure due to the height of the structure and its position close to the vertical.
The result of the calculations should be 2 options - section of the rafters with exposed beams (otherwise - puffs) and a step of installation. It is a mistake to think that the size of the wooden beams of the roof are growing along with loads of it. Maximum rigidity is achieved through the use of roof trusses made of logs with a diameter of 120-200 mm or lumber thickness of 40 to 200 mm, installed at 50-120 cm If you are not an engineer -. Builder, to better define these values can not, because the technique rather complicated.
Online calculators posted on the Internet, the issue is not solved, because their calculations still need to check. The output is as follows: Use the prepared data, which have long been counted. To do this, you need a table №1, which shows the cross-section rafters at different length and load:
The calculation procedure will explain an example. Assume that the snow load on a flat surface (projection pitched roof) in your area was 100 kg / m², the slope is 60 °, the span length - 4.5 m (up canting), Step trusses -. 120 cm Roofing - slate. We consider:
- Actual weight of snow cover: 100 x 0.32 = 32 kg / m². the slope coefficient of 0.32 is taken from the table №2, below.
- Specific gravity slate with a conventional coating profile is 25 kg / m².
- The total specific weight - 32 + 25 = 60 kg / m².
- Calculate the proportion of 1 meter trusses multiplying 60 kg / m² at installation step 1.2 m. Obtain 72 kg.
- We are returning to the table and select №1 timber section along the length of the span. Accept load of 100 kg per 1 m. P. Rafters (with a margin). Suitable beam diameter of 140 mm, the board 200 x 40 mm and other materials, whose dimensions are in the same horizontal row.
Reference. When installing sloping mansard roof trusses used 2 types - naslonnye and hanging. On the roof gable apply only hanging, what the difference between them is reflected in the diagram.
Correctly identify the truss installation interval will help you last table №3:
The proposed method is suitable for small houses of rectangular shape measuring 6 x 6 meters to build a mansard roof on a large cottage, for calculations are strongly encouraged to contact the experts -. Designers.
The simplified method shown below assumes device mansard roof sloping in two stages: the assembly of trusses on the ground and the subsequent installation on finished walls or bar-shaped log home. Structural material protrude board section 15 x 5 and 5 x 10 cm standard length of 6 m.
Start of assembly - the formation of the upper chord truss system
Step by step technique is as follows:
- Zagotovte beam lower chord considering roof overhangs 25-27 cm on each side. If the beam is not long enough, it is necessary to increase by a lining of the same section, nailed.
- Place the beam on the ground and attach the corners of the uprights which form the walls of the attic space. Install ceiling beam and backup for the ridge (grandmother), then each side, to her, and the corners of the frame two boards hanging rafters to mark, as is done in the photo.
- Cut the elements in place and secure them. Of the remaining parts of the boards in the same manner do naslonnye (lower) rafters and nail them to the frame. Farm ready.
- Fabricate remaining farms in the same manner.
Council. As a rule, on the front gables provides a window or door to the balcony. Rack and belts to fit them too convenient to do on the ground, as well as clapboard sheathing openings.
How to quickly and accurately collect the rafters to attic, says in the video:
Finished frames climbing wall and in turn secured in its place, starting from the first gable. That it did not fall, set the struts and nail them to the walls of a log home. The second and subsequent farm placed in a design position and connected to each other with boards.
After placement of the rafters must be secured to the walls of the following ways:
- staples second top crown logs or boards;
- on steel parts and galvanized screws, as shown in the photo.
Note. Installation on brick walls and other capital performed by mauerlat - wooden beams laid on the supporting structures around the perimeter of the building. In turn, mounted on studs mauerlat or anchor bolts, and between them is arranged a stone wall waterproofing layer of roofing material. The mounting assembly is as follows:
The next step - laying on top of the truss system of the diffusion membrane - film protecting from wind and rain, but water vapor transmissive insulation from outside. Roll out the bottom of the roof of the first web and fasten it to the boards stapler, the next place with an overlap of 10-15 cm. When will block the entire roof, nail the boards lathing. More installation is shown in the video:
On top of the crate plank roofing - slate, metal and so on. Technology of laying and fixing depends on the material chosen.
Since the attic is planned as a residential, it should be well insulated. Of thermal insulation materials with wood is best "friends" mineral wool because it allows moisture and allows it to "breathe." Thickness - not less than 150 mm, and in northern regions - up to 300 mm. Warming is made in the following order:
- Cut the slab of mineral wool and insert them vraspor between the rafters.
- For insulation gables nail the extra racks and in the same way between them lay the insulation.
- If the width of the rafters is not enough to create the desired insulation thickness, after laying the first layer to pin them horizontal bars kontrobreshetki. Therebetween insert plate of the second layer.
- Nestle insulation inside vapor barrier film, stacking it with overlap of 15 cm and gluing joints aluminum tape.
- Nail the top batten strips for cladding with plasterboard or other finishing materials.
The important point. When heater tab track, that between them windproof membrane remained vent produhi 3-5 cm. After it is removed moisture that forms in the mineral wool due to occurrence of dew point.
Visually process attic insulation is shown in the next video:
Building a mansard roof - it is time-consuming and alone you can not win it. Most of the work to be performed with an assistant and lifting roof trusses need 3 people. Also, the success of your event depends on the correctness of the original calculations. If the method of calculation leads you into confusion and are not near smart engineers consult with experienced craftsmen - roofers, in whose jurisdiction there is no doubt. They prompt the correct decision, and perhaps tell about the installation of such systems details.