- 1 Nuances replace wiring in an apartment with his hands
- 2 How to change the wiring in an apartment
- 2.1 Why do we need to change the wiring
- 2.2 Selection of wiring plan and installation of sockets and switches
- 2.3 How to dismantle the old wiring
- 2.4 How to lay the wiring
- 2.5 What is the cost to change the wiring in an apartment
- 3 How to build a new wiring in an old apartment
Nuances replace wiring in an apartment with his hands
Replacing wiring - one of the first and most critical stages of overhaul of the apartment.
Sometimes it is necessary to replace the outdated wiring becomes the main argument in favor of a radical change in the appearance of the living space.
In this article, we will analyze in detail how to replace the wiring in an apartment with his hands.
The old houses and apartments built over 20 years ago, which still preserved the old model the wiring, outdated morally and physically, you need to replace the wiring. In the last century for the organization of internal electric networks use aluminum wire.
Aluminum is highly susceptible to corrosion, in addition to the operation of the metal structure is subjected to irreversible changes, the network becomes very brittle. Deterioration of the insulation increases the risk of fire due to short circuit.
Among the typical problems of the old wiring should be mentioned:
- Earthed neutral instead adopted today protective earth;
- Wiring by branching;
- The lack of automatic circuit breakers;
- Too few outlets.
In addition, the load on the internal power supply for 15-20 years has grown in recent times compared with the design values. In conjunction with the technical imperfections of the old network is It poses a serious threat to a possible fire accident.
- The house was built over 20 years ago,
- apartment sparked outlet
- sockets fail,
- when the electrical appliances there is the smell of burning insulation,
- wires are easily broken,
- through the walls of the leakage current occurs,
the urgent need to change the wiring. And the more signs of wear, the less time you have to think.
Partial replacement of the wiring is not recommended, as it can only exacerbate the existing problems. The only case when allowed partial replacement - eliminating breakage.
How to make a competent replacement of the old electric wiring in an apartment with his hands, see below in the video review:
Let us try to understand in detail how the right to replace the wiring in an apartment with his hands. Stepwise replacement of electrical wiring in an apartment with his hands:
- Development circuit internal circuits.
- Drafting wiring plan.
- Approval and registration of the plan and scheme energoinspektsii.
- Makeshift device.
- Installation of defensive mechanisms and connection points.
The cable is selected according to type of power consumption. The easiest way to calculate the cable cross-section:
- to lay down the power of all devices;
- add on 100 W per each unit;
- divide the result 220.
The kitchen should make the two branches of the wiring wire 4mm2, for high-end consumers, on each branch machine set at 25 A and 20 A RCD 30 uA. If the apartment has air conditioning, a branch for its connection made of wires 2.5 mm2, in every room except the bathroom and bathtub factory on two branches: the lighting and rosette. In the bathroom, and the bathroom - only coverage.
The kitchen rosette branches may be greater, since it is the largest number of high-power electrical devices are concentrated. Wires on lighting circuits - 1.5 mm2 outlet - 2.5 mm2, except for specialties.
Example of replacing wiring in an apartment with his hands:
Based on the scheme drawn connection plan for the location of the wires and the connection points relative to the elements of the architecture. Plan diagram and subject to approval and registration energoinspektsii.
To replace the wiring in an apartment with his hands need:
The most accurate way to determine the required number of wires - fathom the distance from the panel to the connection point, considering all the angles, ledges and niches.
Simplified method for calculating the number of wires - area is multiplied by 2. Approximately one-third of the resulting number of wires - lighting, the rest will be spent on organizing socket connection groups.
Furthermore wires need terminals, at least 3 sections 10 of contacts. It is better to avoid the acquisition of terminals in a plastic housing. The holes must pass two wires 2.5 mm2.
Select the type of fastening of wires - a matter of personal preference, but there is a perception that the clamping plate is more convenient and more reliable than the screws.
The main requirement for Enclosures - availability of external projections, improving grip with alabaster. For recommended domestic networks inside apartment cable VVG, VVGng, SPAP.
You must still purchase introductory panel, which will house the terminals 4, 4 machine and all the ends of the wires, corrugated cable, cloth duct tape, and an electrically conductive grease.
Preferably ribbed metal, so it can be further ground and get better protection wiring. Also in case of accidents metal does not ignite and will not release toxic substances.
Vremyanka represents a double or triple socket mounted on the board. By cable 4 mm2 piece through 16 A machine should be attached directly to the residential dose. For temporary connections allowed stranding.
To disassemble need pliers, screwdriver indicator, flashlight, duct tape and rubber gloves. Before you start an apartment should be completely disconnect. To do this, disconnect the main breaker directed to the residential group, but not out of place to disconnect and rest for greater certainty.
Each wire is checked before disconnecting the phase indicator. If voltage is detected, it is possible to carry out the necessary manipulations. Before you touch the wire, remove the automatic connection of residential groups, should check the voltage.
In the end there can be only the main machine and the phase wires inside the apartment. After disabling should be checked for the absence of voltage every socket and switch.
If everything off right, start dismantling, removing all the lighting, sockets and switches. Older wiring can not delete. In cases where the old wiring decided to remove the need Detector flush and wall chaser. Detection of a line opened by a wall chaser and remove the old wires.
Grooves for wiring is cut vertically or horizontally. Bulgarian border cut grooves and then hollow out the grooves themselves using chisels. The recesses for switches and sockets drill core bits, if the walls are brick and knock a chisel in concrete walls. The bit need for forming a recess under the introductory shield.
The wells were set on alabaster Enclosures. Cut lengths of cable and corrugation desired length, the cable is pulled inside the corrugation on the floor. Prepared corrugations paving in Stroebe, setting the stage for the ends of the wires in the Escutcheon.
Escutcheon alabaster align well with wall Stroebe ribbed promazyvayut partly, in small portions over half a meter.
The second end corrugation plant in the introductory panel. The ends of the wire is lubricated with a special paste, fasten the collar and fixed to the earthing terminal R ™ £. Vremyanka disconnected, flat wire factory on the weight of the shield.
After lining made finishing work. In the process of finishing Enclosures will be taped, but they are easy to find and open.
After watching this video you will learn how to properly lay the electrical cable in an apartment on their own:
After setting all the switches, sockets and stationary power consumers on the terminal shield are assembled wiring diagrams. Each branch should be checked for the absence of a short circuit. This is followed by brief washing apartment to determine the zero and phase.
Then you must turn off the power, dissolve the wires on terminal blocks. After it is necessary to conduct another test on fault when switched off, and then at the circuit breaker, then it is possible to connect the main circuit.
All work is performed by a tool with insulated handles, in the rubberized gloves. For shtrobleniya walls at the height of the box is best to use a ladder or a horizontal emphasis. Conventional ladder is not sufficiently reliable.
Replacing the wiring with their own hands - a problem quite complicated, but doable, if you know how to write and read the power supply circuit. Otherwise it is better not to risk it and consult a professional electrician.
In conclusion, we offer watch a video overview of how to choose the right material and do the wiring yourself:
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How to change the wiring in an apartment
Why do we need to change the wiring
Some are interested in the question, why do we need to change the wiring, if the old is quite normal work. To answer this question, it is sufficient to bring a similar example with water pipes. Metal pipes are often replaced by plastic, so they are much more reliable and durable, and besides, they are not clogged with a grin, which occurs in metal pipes, and therefore, the capacity of plastic pipe and pressure in them will always be good. The same, by and large, also applies to the electrical wiring.
Firstly, itself wiring in homes that were built in the last century, it is not designed for the way we exploit it today. In the design of houses and apartments electrical engineers did not know that in each apartment a few years, except the refrigerator, TV, washing machines and light bulbs will be more: computer, air conditioner, powerful electric kettle, iron and other electrical. It turns out that the capacity of the old wiring lower power consumption of all our appliances.
Second, in addition to the bandwidth mismatch wiring capacity, most of the old houses built it was aluminum and aluminum - not the best material for this purpose, having a large number of drawbacks. In addition, the service life of aluminum wiring - 30 years, but to replace it even worth not waiting for this period to ensure a stable supply voltage in the apartment and to extend the service to electrical appliances.
Selection of wiring plan and installation of sockets and switches
Before proceeding to the description of practical actions on installation wiring, a few words need to mention the very wiring.
What better to lay new wiring
Of course, the best cable for wiring in the apartment - stranded copper cable. The main advantage of copper cables to aluminum - its strength. Probably every one of you encountered this problem when aluminum conductor cable, connecting the switch or outlet, simply break off, as this is a very unpleasant situation, with copper multicore cable this problem is not terrible. In addition, copper cable has better throughput and a longer service life.
To connect the sockets is recommended to use multi-core copper cable 2.5 square, and lighting - 1.5 square. We recommend to give preference to a cable with double insulation. If you have at home or you have grounded his plan in the future to do it yourself, buy triple cable with special residential grounding.
Plan the installation of sockets and switches
The first step, before the product installation works, you need to think and plan interior rooms after renovation, as its basis, and will be distributing the residential wiring, to know where and how to lay the cable, and most importantly - how. Therefore, with such a plan, you will know what places to place switches and sockets.
For example, knowing the place where it will be equipped with a computer, we have to pave a separate cable to power the computer all devices that have a high total power consumption. The same applies to other powerful techniques. In those places where the energy intensive equipment will be located, it is better to lay a separate cable from the single outlet: electric oven, air conditioning, water heating tank, fridge, washing machine, etc. For the rest of the equipment to carry out "common" cable and sockets.
The room is recommended to install 5 outlets on one frame, for connecting home theater (TV, DVD-player, a digital receiver, audio system), double outlet near the seating area, and a single outlet in the places where they will be needed.
As for the bedroom, then the bed, the desk and the TV is better to do the double outlet. In other places - as needed.
In the hallway is enough to establish one double socket, and if necessary - additional.
The bathroom is the presence of outlets depends on what appliances you will enjoy it. If there is not a washing machine, and your family members will not use electrical appliances, then washed to make the socket in the bathroom - no.
If you are technically functional kitchen, the place where there will be a cutting table, it is recommended to do three to five outlets in the same frame, depending on the number of concurrent devices. As a rule, the best option 5 sockets to connect: hood, microwave oven and electric kettle, leaving two free sockets to connect: a food processor, bread maker, coffee maker and more. Try to consider the number of outlets in such a way that the stationary equipment, which will not be folded after use in the box, had its outlet to connect, so as not to protrude from the wall socket each time one fork technology for connecting other. Next, calculate the required number of outlets, as well as what and how much power will simultaneously operate the devices to know: pursue one or more cable.
Also, make outlets and other places where it is needed.
According to the established specifications, installation sockets made at a distance of 30 cm from the floor, and installation of circuit breakers -. 85 cm on to a single cable with a square cross section 2.5 can be connected to the five sockets for power supply is not energy-consuming devices, energy-intensive for - preferably one. From the meter to the distribution boxes it is recommended to use a cable with a cross section of 4 square.
How to dismantle the old wiring
So, when you know where and what kind of outlet you must be on a plan to begin dismantling the old wiring. Removal Procedure depends entirely on how old the wiring has been laid: laid in special channels inside the wall or embedded in the wall, but all these things in order.
Before any electrical installation and dismantling operations must disconnect all the wiring coming from the apartment of the counter and from the counter directly powered extender for temporary power.
If the wiring has been laid in the channels, its dismantling and the new installation is done simultaneously. That is, to one end of the old cable new we we wind, and take out the other end of the old wiring - that way you will hit the wall is unnecessary for dismantling the old wiring and have difficulty with a new gasket. But if new wiring plan will be different from the laying-up of the current, then the walls will need to punch Stroebe.
In that case, when your apartment wiring was embedded in the wall, the first thing you need to determine where it is laid, and only then make its removal and laying of the new. Find the wiring in the wall and you can visually see on the surface of the wall embedded Stroebe, or else by using a special device.
How to lay the wiring
Installation of new wiring is as follows: on the wall to mark the, which will host the new wiring. After that, with the help of grinders and punch Stroebe do - the best way for the wall panel house. Wiring recommend laying in the corrugation, as an additional security, and the next time its replacement will not be so difficult, since the new cable can be held by pulling out the old.
When cutting grooves for cabling done, first of all carry out the cable from the meter to the electrical box. Put cable laid into corrugation and its data in Stroebe fixing to the wall alabaster, every 1-1.5 meters. Further, from the distribution boxes to lay cables (ripple in) to sockets, switches and lights. Accommodation for cable outlets and switches must be at least 15 cm next milestone -. Compound branching trunk cable in distribution boxes. We would like to draw your attention that the cable connection is made using a special terminal block, rather than using twists. Such a compound will be of higher quality and more secure. When all the works in distribution boxes made - to pass Apartement input power.
The final stage of the work is to connect the wiring to the meter apartment. If you have the old meter and old machines - it is better to replace. Ideal - a qualified electrician, so they had a new cable from the electrical panel to entrance you in the counter, and he replaced the meter. Set counter to recommend a special metal plate, which also fix the electrical machines. As for the machines, it is recommended to install a two-phase. How many amps should be in the machine - determined on the basis of what kind of equipment will you have to work at the same time. Consumed power these devices are added and divided by 220 thus obtain amperage machine. After all the work with the laying of a new cable in the apartment, replacing the counter (oplombirovkoy) and installation of the machine - finished, at the very least connect the machine to the apartment layout, and then turn on the machines. If the machine is not knocked out - it means everything is connected properly, check all the sockets and switches on the performance.
Materials that need to replace the wiring in the apartment:
What is the cost to change the wiring in an apartment
If you decide to make the replacement of wiring, using for this purpose the services of specialized firms, as a rule one point, according to the average estimates, will cost you in the region of 500 rubles. That is, to set the 2 sockets and 2 switch - it will cost 2000 rubles, not counting materials: boxes, cable outlet or switch. To this you must add the cost of the cabling panel to the junction box and the cost of materials. Thus, replacement of wiring in a studio apartment will cost you 7,000 rubles.
The cost of rewiring their own hands will be several times cheaper, because for that you only need to buy the necessary material, as well as having: a disk grinder for concrete, hammer drill with nozzles for shtrobleniya, alabaster and auxiliary tool.
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How to build a new wiring in an old apartment
Statistics of fires shows that the majority of fires properties is due to improper state of electrical wiring. The houses and apartments built in the last century, the estimated load on the electrical cable is not provided for such a large number of household electrical appliances (dishwashers and washing machines, refrigerators, electric kettles, electric cookers, microwave ovens, air conditioners).
Permanent excess of the nominal power used by electrical leads to a decrease in the life of the home grid. Wire insulation begins to deteriorate. It is applied in the past for the residential wiring aluminum wire loses its flexibility and becomes brittle. Decreases the safety of using electricity. wiring damage often occurs in places that are difficult to detect. To restore the connection has to open the wall.
Deterioration of the wiring makes it unpredictable in terms of reliability, and often simply dangerous. Ensure the smooth and safe energy apartment will only allow replacement of the entire distribution system, connecting elements, switches and protective devices. Works made with the expectation of the future, in the future will allow you to expand the possibilities of the use of modern home appliances.
For determination section wires corresponding to the load on them, the choice of devices with desired characteristics, but also for the qualitative mounting wiring requires professional approach.
Calculation of the required cable cross-section
These calculations are performed with the use of well-known around the Ohm's law. It summed up the power consumption of all devices and equipment in the apartment. The calculation also take the appliances you plan to use. The result divide by 220 and multiply the correction coefficient of 0.75. The amendment takes into account that not all devices operate simultaneously. For the average consumer received value does not exceed 16A.
- If you have received less than the specified number, use the wire cross section of 1.6 square meters. mm.
- If the result is greater, you will have to spend a few lines and installed on each device (RCD). In this case, calculations are made for each group.
For accurate calculation of the cable cross section, there are many suitable formulas and tables. However, in a simplified embodiment, the magnitude of the cross section in mm 2 corresponds to a load in amperes greater than the value 10 times. For example, at a load of 15 A need a cable 1.5 mm 2. The necessary cable length is calculated when drawing up the plan diagram for future wiring.
Before starting work on the replacement of wiring is necessary to chart the planned location of the sockets, switches, lighting, junction boxes. Sockets must be placed so that it was not necessary to use extenders and tees.
If you are not a qualified electrician, electrical circuit wiring and other equipment location nuances to better align with a professional. To make changes to an existing scheme also requires permission Energonadzor, t. To. They are considered redevelopment.
More practical elements to break electricity consumption groups: lighting, electric toilet. Each group is better to lay a separate cable. This reduces the number of connections in the distribution boxes. Besides damage to the wiring groups will not prevent the rest of the run.
Bathroom and toilet better connect a separate group. High humidity increases the electrical danger. Line of this group need to equip your RCD (residual current device) or Emergency circuit breakers.
If you can not be determined visually line paved the wiring, use the device, showing the location of the wires in the wall. In the price list, he is referred to as a detector, a seeker, alarm, etc.
The first de-energized apartment, turning off the packet switch in the switchboard. Disconnect the cable going to the apartment, and portability is connected at the time of work. When the apartment is not energized, make sure there is no voltage on the sockets.
Dismantling wires begin with junction boxes. The easiest way to replace the old with new wires using existing channels of cable. By the end of the old wiring in the box engage new and pulled him out of the next connection point.
But this method is not always successful and is not suitable when changing home wiring plan. If the old wiring passes in channels or corrugated plastic pipes, and plastered in Stroebe, they can re-open or cut new channels in parallel.
Before cutting cutting grooves in the design makes marking wires laying lines and places the installation of sockets, switches and lighting devices. Grooves for new lines are routed via the disk tool or punch.
Shtroblenie concrete walls of the capital and produce punch with the blade attachment. Along the edges of the future Stroebe punched grooves, then knocked out the middle part.
The foam concrete and brick walls of the lateral grooves are cut with the grinder stone for the disc. Mid-puncher also removed. Wall premoistened for dust reduction.
Replace the start with the entrance hall. For the residential wiring often used wire marks VVG, as well as wire with non-combustible insulation VVG NG. In Stroebe can first secure the corrugated hose or PVC pipe and already stretching their cable.
When laying cables in the channels, they are fixed through each meter via alabaster. The switches and sockets leave excess wire of 15 cm.
The new junction box, sockets and switches are set in the grooves, drilled with special crowns and modify a chisel. At the location of the contact elements there is no standard. The height of the installation is determined on the basis of ease of use by tenants. It is recommended to install at least 20 cm from the floor.
Modern apartments are equipped with grounding lines. Sockets and supply lines to wire it must be suitable for a three-conductor wiring system (zero phase, protective earth). Wire section - not less than 2.5 mm 2. For a single cable can connect up to five single sockets. lighting devices powered two-core cable cross-section 1.5 mm 2.
For such equipment, air conditioning, washing machine, computer recommended laying a separate cable. Your cable is supplied to the furnace and hot water tank, but uses a circuit breaker. When assembling elements to the lighting switch is removed or only the phase conductor, either together with zero, making the opening on the phase. wire then fed directly to the chandelier.
Connect the wires in the following ways: soldering, twisting, using terminals. soldering method is more reliable, but it requires more time and special tools. This method is used for the installation of cables with large cross section. Application for connection terminals lived most practical. Used for creating contact terminal blocks, junction spring terminals and squeezing ( "nuts").
Sometimes cabling produce through channels in the concrete slabs ceiling. For this purpose holes are drilled in the ends of the channel and pushed along it the steel wire. But it is hard work that requires skill and a separate description. Also, another specificity is the process laying of cables and installation of sockets and switches in the walls of plasterboard.
For the production of works on the replacement of wiring need the following tools and materials:
- Hammer with pobeditovymi drills and attachments;
- bolgarka (with stone disc);
- multimeter, the phase indicator;
- construction cord level;
- copper wires, switches, sockets, wiring and terminal boxes;
- putty knife, pliers, side cutters, screwdriver, soldering iron;
- circuit breakers;
- insulating tape, insulating caps, putty.
In modern apartments wiring diagram used circuit breakers and other protective devices. In the case of excess load on the wiring system are de-energized. It is recommended for each group of consuming devices to install a separate protection device. For example, for the three socket lines and two light lines installed six machines respective denominations. The sixth circuit breaker placed as a reserve.
Furthermore it is recommended to set a general introductory protection device. You can buy a ready-assembled panel to the apartment.
- For groups of sockets typically installed on machine 25 A, at a load of 5.5 kW.
- If the total power consumers up to 3 kW is sufficient apparatus 16 A.
- For a group of illumination - 10 A.
- For the residential wiring used machines of type "B" general purpose.
Wiring for the completion of the new network is tested for the absence of short circuits. Typically, a combined device (tester) is used for this. After the voltage is the same device or a phase indicator checks for supply to the outlets and access to the lighting devices. Making sure your system, Stroebe sealed plaster solution.
Do not skimp on materials and devices related to electricity. All elements of the electrical machines, cables and sockets to other details must be of good quality. By the quality of the devices are not meant delights of design and functionality, and reliability of products.
Self-assembly of the power supply of apartment is impossible without basic knowledge in electrical engineering and the principles of domestic electrical installation. If you do not believe in their capabilities, it is necessary to carry out work under the guidance of a professional. In any case, compliance with the electrical safety measures - the main condition.