- 1 Proper pruning grapes in the fall for beginners
- 2 Grape Pruning for Beginners
- 3 Cut the grapes in the winter, and the harvest will surprise you!
Proper pruning grapes in the fall for beginners
Pruning grapes in the fall for beginners seems business is very complex, requiring many years of experience. How to form a crown? When the best vine, and whether to do it at all necessary? Such questions often asked budding vine-growers. Let's try to answer them. To learn more about the details of the process, you can see the video below.
Pruning grapes in autumn
Why cut the grapes in autumn
Vine began in ancient times, in countries where the culture was grown conventionally (Greece, Italy, France, the Middle East). Ancient winegrowers noticed that after cutting the vine begins to bear fruit better, less sick. Advantages of pruning grapes can be grouped as follows:
As you can see, pruning grapes is much more meaningful than just the formation of the crown, like fruit trees. Conduct should be exactly in the autumn. If the cut branches in the spring, they let the juice, vines lose valuable nutrients. This not only slows down the ripening and the quality of berries, but also can lead to destruction of the bush, to launch the first shoots. In the southern regions sometimes practice pruning the vineyard in February, but in the north this month will be too cold.
In the summer you can pinch grapes, mint, pinch. This is not a typical cutting rather bush update. This care helps to timely detect pests and diseases, in order to successfully deal with them. In the autumn of doing two trim. Immediately after collecting the berries are removed dry or too thick branches. The second pruning makes a couple of weeks after all the leaves fall off. Temperature should not be below -5 ° C. Begin pruning already with one year of age.
Fan pruning grapes - the most popular method, which is used in the northern and temperate latitudes, for example, in Moscow, the Urals, Siberia. Crohn formed after such cutting branches makes it easy to conceal vines in winter. Formed several branches which grow vertically with respect to the main wellbore and form a fan. As the vine growing number of arms can be adjusted. Such pruning scheme significantly increases productivity, protects the vines from freezing. Second name method - besshtambovaya pruning grapes in the fall.
Pruned branches, in other cases, a month or a couple of weeks after leaf fall. This is a fairly simple procedure, however, and it has its own rules. If they stick to in the future, the grapes will produce a great harvest. Here is the step by step guide for beginners:
- In the first year seedling is cut so that it remains 2-3 buds (the third eye spare).
- In the second year of the seedlings should grow two arms (third pinch sleeve spring). In autumn they are cut, leaving 3-4 buds.
- In the third year of the two shoots should grow another two sleeves. By the fall of their length is one meter. The lower sleeve should look out from the bush. When pruning left sleeve approximately 50 cm long.
- In subsequent years of these branches form a fertile sleeve (7-8 left kidney) and mote substitution (2-3 buds).
Fertile tie rod to be vertical to the vineyard trellis. In the following years, when the fan has formed a fruitful vine in autumn clipped. In the future branches will be formed from a knot of substitution. The total number of fruit-bearing sleeves on a bush grapes may reach 6-8 pieces. In winter, they just hide in the shelter. The technique is suitable for bowline and sheltered way of growing grapes. It is used by growers is not the first year.
Another way to cut the grapes in autumn - Shtambovji. It is used most often in the southern regions, where the bushes in the winter does not harbor. The main purpose of the cutoff - shaping strong grape stem (trunk). It takes place during the first 5-6 years. Shtamb begin to form in the first year, then it will grow and produce new shoots. Conducted regular autumn crop of young grapes in the following way:
- First year. Sapling cut, leaving 2-3 buds. Of this annual escape subsequently formed shtamb.
- Second year. Vine gives two appendages, the strongest of which is selected to form a stem, a second left for reserve. In autumn leaves on the main trunk 2-3 buds on the reserve - 2 buds. All other stepchildren from the two-year plants are removed.
- Third year. Forming the desired height trunk. Barrel three grapes are cut, leaving the top of the two branches. The remaining shoots are removed. On the top sleeves are left when cutting two eyelet. At the level of the arms pull the wire, it will snap fruitful branches.
- Fourth year. Formation of a crown. The shoots are pruned so that there is a distance of about 20 cm between the remaining. The correct crown will produce good results for many years.
- Fifth year. The shoots are pruned so that each had 2-3 buds.
- Sixth year. On fertile sleeves need to leave 7-8 buds, the sleeves replacement - 2 buds.
After six years, the size and shape of the crown support, without making any changes. Thus it is possible to trim table grapes, such as aleshenkin, Laura. It is also suitable for technical types: Isabella, Lydia, grown under neukryvnyh and arch viticulture. For a girl's grapes in the northern latitudes is more appropriate with fan pruning with a further grafting.
How to crop grown vines and why do it? Pruning helps to keep the crown in its normal state, it does not allow the bush to grow randomly. With such a manipulation can rejuvenate grapes make it more fruitful. It is best to hold it in the fall, 2-3 weeks after all the leaves fall off. At this time, the vine juices cease to circulate, it will not lose valuable nutrients. And grow the sleeves after the fall crop better.
Preparing for the winter grape autumn, namely a covering
Preparing for the winter grape autumn, namely a covering
One of the most difficult events of the grapes it is,
One of the most difficult events of the grapes it is,
Forming "two-armed cordon".
Forming "two-armed cordon".
If you grow grapes in the country, or on the farm
If you grow grapes in the country, or on the farm
The final formation of the crown vine occurs in 5-6 years after planting. After that, the vine bears fruit 20-25 years, only need to properly take care of it. Pruning helps keep productivity and does not allow branches to grow randomly. Autumn can remove 70% to 90% of branches. Thus completely cut off the old, cease to bear fruit. Choose and leave the young and strong shoots. How to cut the grapes grown in the fall? Annual autumn crop, according to the scheme consists of the following steps:
- Cut old shoots, tree stumps, extra appendages.
- Choose a branch of which will be formed swirls of substitution. They leave at 2 kidneys.
- Fully paid weak shoots.
- On the left fruiting sleeves 7-8 buds, and the rest is cut off.
If the bush is old and bad fruits, it can be upgraded. To do this, cut the entire crown, bole dig to a depth of about 15 cm. At a depth of about 10 centimeters of the trunk is cut, in the remaining area make several incisions. cut site daubed clay and poured over him mound. Spring shtambe vine shoots will appear from which you can generate a bush. Thus can be launched from an old vineyard, make a new one, to extend the time of its fruiting. In parallel with the trimmer can instill new varieties, more productive and resistant to diseases.
Proper pruning vines - an important and necessary process that begins with a one-year of age. It helps to form the crown, increases productivity, helps to even update the old bushes. It is best to make it fall to the next year, Bush gave new shoots. There are different ways of pruning, it is best to choose one that is appropriate for your climate zone, sheltered and neukryvnyh method of growing vines. In the north and in temperate climates using besshtambovuyu crop, and in the south - stam. The young and the old bush also cut differently.
The cut branches should be equal, in any case, not torn, because you need to work with sharp tools. Best of all, if the cut is tapered slightly and turned towards the inside of the bush. Emphasis pruner should be removed from the part of the vine, and the island - from the remains. Then cut to obtain a flat and smooth. To other branches of the bush is not damaged, leaving withdrawn his hand (isolated).
If the thickness is greater than 3 cm vines, its sawed tool with small teeth, not cut off the shears. When removed a few branches, all sections are located on the same side. Special care after cutting is not required. During the summer period, you can pinch the vine, to remove dry and diseased shoots. For more on pruning grapes can learn by watching video tutorials for beginners or a step by step guide with detailed photos, drawings and diagrams.
Grape Pruning for Beginners
pruning grapes - one of the most difficult events held in the country. Sometimes it is difficult to understand, how to properly trim the vines and when.
Trimming vine pruning is reduced to 90 percent of vines, leaving the required number of holes (kidney).
Let us consider in detail the secrets of proper pruning vines, starting with the first year of planting.
Pruning grapes can be produced both in spring and autumn. When pruning a bush in the autumn it is desirable to cover for the winter, protected from frost. If your local harsh winters, then spend the spring pruning or harboring the vine in winter. By the way, Uncut grapes better tolerate winter.
Features of the structure and names of parts of the vine
The base of the trunk, which is in the ground, called heel, roots grow from it.
shtamb - part of the stem to the first side shoots, as in all the trees. Grapes and part of the trunk is under the ground, the heel ends.
Head - thickening on the main stem, which depart from the side shoots.
Sleeves (shoulder) - a lateral shoots extending from the main stem. And the eyes of them, it is the same kidney.
There are terms that you must remember: fruit and twig arrow replacement.
fruit shooter - the length of the cut sleeve, which is left after cutting renal 8-12.
Twig replacement - short sleeve, after trimming is 2-4 buds.
fruit link - shoot a couple consisting of a knot of substitution and fruit arrow. All names we discussed, we turn to the secrets of pruning grapes.
There are a lot of options of formation of the vine. Let us dwell on the most simple and understandable - the shoots start to grow not vertically but horizontally.
Formation of vines in the first year
In the spring at the central escape left 2 the lowest buds, the rest is cut off. 2 of them grow their escape, and tie them obliquely in different directions.
Late autumn, when leaves fall off all, before this can not be done, or grape juice runs out, shortening the shoots. One subject short escape, leaving two kidneys second escape leave long, leaving four kidneys. In winter, the vine shoot with trellis and cover.
Forming grapes for the second year
In the spring, after the danger has passed severe frosts (early April), remove the cover and tie rod to the bottom wire trellis, tops in different directions.
Stems, buds grow back from, let vertically or slightly tilted toward the center of the bush.
In autumn, after leaf fall, long sleeve cut leaving 2 to escape. The sleeves are the same. Then trim the vertical stems: those that are closer to the center and down the main stems, cut leaving two buds. This is a knot of substitution.
Vertical stems located further cut leaving at 4 buds - it will be the fruit arrow. Remove vines and lodge in the winter.
Formation of the grapes in the third year
In the spring, after the pass by frost, remove the cover from the vine. Long fruit arrows to the lower tie wire trellis horizontally apices in opposite directions.
knots replacement allowed to grow vertically. During the summer, of all kidney grow stems. In early August, spend minting - trimming the stems of 10-20 cm This will increase the quality and quantity of berries..
August did not spend before minting, or weight on the vine shoots appear.
In the autumn, after leaf, crop otplodonosivshie extreme 4 vertical shoots with a piece of hose.
As a result, on each shoulder will remain one link with two vertical shoots. Their pruning also, in the second year. Escape the closest to the center of the cut leaving two buds, leaving long 4 buds.
All subsequent years, vine growth, carry out pruning similarly as in the third year.
Note: for more reliability and power reserve, the shoots can leave more buds, but no more than 10 each. This is done in case of frost damage.
For example, the optimal amount of 3 knots on the kidney substitution and 6-7 in fruit buds arrows. In the spring, when all the buds survive, excess can be trimmed.
Video - step by step Pruning grapes
Here are the key secrets for the crop of grapes in autumn, the observance of which will be the key to quality and a large crop of berries.
Cut the grapes in the winter, and the harvest will surprise you!
According to legend, early pruning grapes a few centuries ago, put an ordinary donkey. Italian vine-growers that supplied wine troops of the Roman Empire, noticed that vines, which once bitten donkey, have become much better to grow and give more berries than unspoilt bush.
When is the vine pruning - summer, fall or spring?
Since grapes circumcision was carried out on all the vineyards. Over time, improved technology, allowing to obtain an even greater harvest of berries. Today, knowing how to properly cut off the grapes, even a novice gardener can achieve excellent results.
pruning grapes not only increases the volume of the harvest, but also changes for the better taste, as well as the size of the berries. Furthermore, the procedure accelerates the ripening grapes, significantly facilitates the care of fruit-bearing shrubs and berry picking, because this freedom-loving shrub able to grow in all directions, if it does not form annually.
When ukryvnogo wine preference autumn pruning grapes in the first place, because it helps to hide better quality vines in the winter and to protect shrubs from frost. With the arrival of spring care circumcised in winter vineyard easier, and by the fall of a large number of berries ripen.
Scheme pruning grape
not welcome Spring pruning grapes for the simple reason that to grapes and so hard to heal wounds, as if to cut off the vine at the beginning of sap flow, it will appear on the "tears". As a result, not only do you not wait for a good harvest, but also can kill the plant. At the beginning of March, when the established temperature is below 5 degrees, can be cautious pruning young vines, did not come into fruition or seedlings that have been planted in the fall.
Pruning grapes not only increases the volume of the harvest, but also changes for the better palatability
Summer pruning grapes, in fact, it is not cutting in the conventional sense of the word. In the summer months, the tenants on the bushes pinch the shoots, mint, stepson, break out the unnecessary branches. These treatments are directed at prevention of diseases, an increase provetrivaemosti bush ensuring sunlight bunch, creating favorable conditions for ripening fruit.
Knowing how to cut the grapes in the summer of unnecessary shoots, you will be able to increase the flow of nutrients to the brushes, which will increase the fruit and allow to ripen the vines, which are left for the next year. Can be in addition to thin out the leaves to clusters of "I breathe better."
Prepare grapes for the winter
Now you know that it is better to choose the crop of grapes in autumn, but how to use it correctly? It is best to carry out this procedure in two stages, so you can make sure that leave next year for fruiting vines, which are very well-ripened.
In the first step, once all the fruit from the bushes collected, cleaned of branch units passed fruiting stage of sickly shoots and tops from impeding the development of grapes. Start off the main crop of grapes for the winter It should be a couple of weeks at the end of the leaf fall before the shelter Vineyard. Part of the carbohydrates from the young shoots at this time go into the roots and long-term part of the bushes. If hanging on the vine trellis will take the first few frosts - do not worry, because they are better steeled, but during the trimming temperature should be below -3 degrees, otherwise the branches become brittle.
Circumcision of young seedlings usually does not cause problems: you remove the extra annual shoots, forming a bush according to a certain pattern grape crop, and leaving 3 to 8 arms (rising at an angle from the ground), which will give the harvest. But with years of bush have to tinker, especially if he had never circumcised.
Circumcision of young seedlings usually does not cause problems
Even in the most advanced cases, proper pruning grapes will result in the bushes in order and achieve greater productivity. It does it like this:
- in the first ten days of September to remove perennial sleeves young shoots, which appeared before the first wire stretched at a height of two feet above the ground;
- from shoots that grew on the sleeves above the second wire stretched 30 cm from the bottom wire otchekante the tip by 10% of shoot length and cut all the side stepchildren (do it right you will crop of grapes in pictures);
- in mid-October after leaf select a couple of the most developed shoots at the height of the first two wires;
- lower escape, which has grown from the outside of the sleeves, cut, leaving three or four eye - thus you will form mote substitution;
- higher settling down on the opposite side of the escape cut, leaving five to twelve buds - it will fruit arrow. The number of holes should be equal to the diameter of the escape + 1-2 eyelet replacement in case of freezing or damping off.
As a result, the vineyard must remain the most powerful long-term trunks (trunks, growing perpendicular to the ground) and the sleeve with the kidneys, from which will grow by next summer the new vines and fruit brush. How to cut the grapes in the winter, you understand, we can only properly prepare it for winter: the remaining branches, remove from the trellis, lay aside the vine growth, then fasten to the ground and cover with foil or tarpaulin.
Subtleties of pruning grapes for beginners
Why leave the tenants experienced by 4 buds on a branch of substitution and 11-13 buds on a fruit arrow? This is largely explained by the safety net for the winter, but there are other reasons. Thus, additional buds on a branch of substitution will allow the spring before the crop grapes of extra green shoots, choose the shoots, which form the largest inflorescence. As for the fruit of the arrow, the first two or three buds in the conditions of the northern regions may be unfruitful, since their formation falls on a cool June. Until the seventh inflorescence buds receives an average, but up to 13-15 buds formed the largest inflorescence, formed in July, when enough sunny days, and the air temperature is high.
In the process of circumcision try to wounds and cuts were on the inside of the shoots, the one that faces the middle of the bush. Then they will be faster and more overgrown. Wounds from different sides sap flow branches difficult, because of which bushes yield may decrease. The slices should be as smooth, not a "shaggy".
In the process of circumcision try to wounds and cuts were on the inside of the shoots, the one that faces the middle of the bush
If in addition to the useful recommendations contained in the article, you need a clear example of how the grape crop, video in the corresponding tab will satisfy your curiosity. Learn the theory, try to trim the bushes themselves, and you will be sure to grow a superb crop!