How to build a frame house right?
Prefab homes have earned special popularity in the northern parts of the country. So the question: how to build a frame house - is quite common. Many gardeners erect these houses in their areas because of the speed of their construction. Frame house is the most lightweight design, which can be quickly and cheaply build. In this case, the construction of such buildings requires a minimum intervention of inspection bodies (such as the BTI). They can not live only in the warmer seasons of the year, but on a regular basis - it should only provide heating.
It is important to note that the frames should only be build with quality materials, respecting all the rules of construction of buildings. This is especially true of multi-storey (2-3 storey) designs. the construction technology is quite simple, but it requires attention and care in construction, which not everyone can - because not all people perseverance. To learn how to build a frame house on their own, it will be discussed below.
Construction of frame structures begins with the development of the project. The drawings of such buildings should be ordered in architectural office, where professionals will calculate all the necessary parameters and will take into account the wishes of the future owner. Drawings can be found in various sources, however it is necessary to double-check them carefully, as there may be a serious error. In addition, in this case the object is much more difficult to "legitimize" and, accordingly, to bring communication.
The project should be specified in terms of communication I - sewer, water, a place to connect to the power supply agreement with power company separately. connection diagram in this case is negotiated separately. Upon receipt of the project and permits for the construction of a place should be prepared. It is purified from debris and vegetation.
Special attention to remove the trees - they must be uprooted so that the area is not even the roots remain. To do this, they burn from within. In parallel, make a supply of communications to the site - water and electricity are required for construction. This is a rather long operation, which could take several months.
To speed up and reduce the cost of the construction process, it is possible to buy blueprints existing homes. In this case, you do not need to agree on the finished project and supply of communications to it - this is done in advance. In addition, the project will cost less than the development of a new project (and this is without taking into account approvals!), But in this case it will be impossible to make your changes - will have to agree with the existing layout. However, you can pick up a good plan - in the State Register has quite a few frame houses. After preparation of a site for the construction of the project and to obtain arms, you can start building.
The technology involves the use of a frame house timber and wood for the house, and they were light enough (relative to other building materials). Therefore, under such building does not require the construction of a strong capital base. Under them you can do the following types of foundations: screw, columnar and ribbon weakly deepened.
The choice of a particular type of foundation depends primarily on the type of soil, as well as financial resources:
- Pier foundation does not require the suspension of the work after its construction. For its construction should buy about a hundred columns (for a small building, about 70 square meters). The technology of the following construction: poles mounted in the ground after drilling under these "holes", which have a diameter of about 25 cm of depth should be at least 1 meter. The interval between the pillars in a straight, must not exceed 0.8 meters. After the "wells" drilled therein is inserted into the tube of asbestos. Intervals between the pipes and the ground should fill and compacted mixture of gravel and sand. To ram it is best to use water. Whereupon the tube is filled with concrete mortar.
- Ground Screws (or pile) today are the most popular for frame buildings. The foundation for the construction of a frame house with your own hands can be done without involving the workers. The technology of building such a foundation includes manual screwing piles. This is due to the fact that the only way to maximize exactly set the level of piles. When this is strictly forbidden to screw pile several times at one point (and retrieval). Therefore, manual labor and the more preferable.
- Belt weakly deepened the foundation to build a simple (but not faster). For this purpose a bearing walls of the building and the perimeter excavated trench (depth depends on the region type of soil and the estimated mass of the building), which is filled with concrete (pre cushion should be put - sand and gravel). After this foundation gives a month, so he froze. The important point is that the technology of building this foundation provides for bookmarks - studs for fastening the frame.
When the foundation is ready, it should begin the construction of the house (walls).
frame construction technology is an algorithm that is applicable to all of its species (Canadian, Fink, US).
The frame house can be made of metal or wood - depending on personal preference and finance. Today, the best, but expensive, are considered to be of timber frames which everything else is also lighter than steel. In a first step a fully build floor. In this case, the wooden parts on the foundation can not be put without insulation (roofing material). Next, fit the sub-floor frame of timber. The coating materials may be unpolished board. It is important to sheathe frame boards from the bottom, install logs and put them honey insulation.
After floor installation proceed to build the walls. Their carcasses were collected on a horizontal plane, and after the assembly is set and secured to the base. This greatly simplifies and speeds up construction. In this case, the wall frame assembly should be done very carefully, to avoid distortions. frame height of the walls should be done according to the project, but at the same time to consider and what height ceiling want to have a boss. The recommended ceiling height in such buildings - 2.5 meters. When installing the carcasses of walls should pay special attention to windows and doors - their frames should be mounted to a wall stud at once.
When the frame is installed, it should sheathing boards. In this case, inside you can put a heater. Importantly, the frame device may not have a deviation from the design, otherwise there may be problems in the future (reduction of structural strength and other failure). A very important point is the treatment of wooden parts impregnated. The following technique: first beams and boards treated with waterproof impregnation, allowed to dry, and then applied a second layer of impregnation. The next step - Treatment antiseptic impregnations in 2 layers. Is finalizing - processing refractory solutions.
Since wood is a very specific material that even after treatment will absorb moisture, it is necessary to lay the insulating materials. To do this, use a vapor barrier film, which lay in all the walls, including interior partitions. It protects the wood from rotting and accumulation of condensate in the piers.
The insulation is recommended to provide at the design stage, because the materials for this have their own weight. Laying insulation materials can be made in the wall (more efficiently) and to sheathe the house from the outside or the inside. If necessary, and financial capabilities can be combined laying insulation in the wall to the outer skin of the house. Preference should be given to natural and non-combustible materials -. Materials such as foam, polyurethane foam, etc. are undesirable for installation in wooden houses (they are flammable), the preference is to give the stone wool. Installation of insulation is one of the simplest operations, it can be easily made to a single pair of hands.
The last stage is the construction of the roof. Truss system is always made for her from the tree, and the coating material should be light - heavy ceramic tiles lightweight frame is simply not survive. It is important that the truss system was built under the heaviest coating (of the permissible), that in the future you can change it without changing the rafters device. The ending of the construction will finish at home. It is strongly recommended to house exterior sheathing noncombustible materials such as siding. Interior decoration is based on their own tastes, but it should also give preference to non-combustible materials.
How to build a frame house right?
This design is called "Canadian." Prefab homes are unusual for our country, because we have "blood" to do everything thoroughly and safely, first had strong log house, then stone buildings, many of which still stand. By the way, we use prefabricated panel houses vaguely resemble the Canadian version.
So, before you deal with foreign technology, it is necessary to find out what it is attractive. It is worth noting that this type of construction, for example, in America, is a big part of individual housing being built. And "there" know how to count money.
The advantages of frame construction
- Prefabricated houses construction technology allows you to complete the work as soon as possible (3 to 5 months).
- The building has a much lighter weight than similar buildings made of wood (logs, lumber) or bricks, w / w slabs. Consequently, the foundation is needed not so massive. And this is - a significant depreciation of the total construction cost.
- Possibility of installation of utilities directly "in the wall", which not only promotes the use of any type of finishing material, but also "hide" from the eyes of various units, pipes and wires.
- Not require the use of special (heavy) equipment construction. So, it is possible to conduct work in a confined space, with no arrangement of access roads.
- Building strength. If the technology of such a structure is stable to the vagaries of nature (strong wind, a thick layer of snow on the roof, and the like). Experts say that even a small earthquake will not be fatal for him.
- Opportunity to build on almost any soil form.
- No shrinkage. This means that the entire production cycle continues without a break - finishing begins immediately.
- Good thermal insulation with a small wall thickness. This significantly reduces heating costs. At one of the forums, even said that the one-storey house is enough only two oil radiators. Moreover, it is verified in practice. Thermal conductivity "framing" walls comparable with the bar (0.5 m).
- With good quality - lower cost.
Prefab homes are divided into 2 types: frame-panel and frame-frame. But the construction of frame wooden houses of the first type is not always possible, since it is associated with certain difficulties.
Such models have a common core - the frame, "skeleton" of the whole structure. But its methods are different plating. Consider the particular construction technology of each design.
Frame-panel house is also called "panel". It was built by the assembly. That is already finished boards are mounted directly on the site, connecting them to the frame and to each other. Independent production elements involves considerable labor costs, and the quality of the "product" is not guaranteed. Production of such boards are engaged in the enterprise, specializing in building materials.
What is this product? Stable planks (connected "butt") enclosed in a solid wooden frame. On both sides of this assembly sheathe or fiberboard, or the same board. In the latter embodiment, on the one hand a vertical trim, and the other is a "sandwich". On the surface of the shield overlap steam and waterproofing layers. What material is used, it should be specified by the manufacturer. Top - horizontal stripe boards, and the second row - the vertical again. This is one of the possible options.
Such designs are not only differences in manufacturing technology shields (the material used, its layout), but compounds and methods of building elements to each other. frame ready for installation of the modules. As a rule, it is also made of wood (timber). But lately, for the manufacture of the "core" are increasingly being used galvanized steel profiles.
How to build a frame house right?
1. Independently make quality shields - it is quite troublesome and difficult. Firstly, it is necessary to withstand all sizes, literally to "millimeter". Second, shield fastening elements. If you buy them separately, it is not certain that all of them will fit. Third, the correct choice of insulation materials and their installation on the assembly. If you buy ready-made, it is necessary to find out what type of insulation is applied, the modules are made on what technology.
2. Frame-panel house with his hands full not get collected. Will need construction equipment in the first place - the crane. Manually lift the bulky boards and holding them in the air, fastened to the frame - it is impossible;
3. For the machine will need space. To assemble the boards - also need a place. Incidentally, this is the rare case when they gather at the site of construction. After all, you will need to deploy a full-blooded little mini-workshop. And if they are going to "somewhere", they still need to deliver. You need a trailer or truck with an elongated body + trailer. And as they drive up, turn around, unload?
4. It is necessary to stock up on a variety of tools, including special and (hammer, screwdriver, etc.). Does it make sense to buy it all and spend a lot of money, if after the completion of the much larger and may not be necessary?
5. Not everyone understands all the intricacies of the building, in its technology. This is the correct construction of the foundation, protection (thermal, hydro, anti-corrosion and so on). And the walls, floors, roofs, and that's not all. For example, the markup for doors and windows - a difficult task. If it is admitted miscalculation, then fix then - it is sometimes quite expensive and is not always feasible. From this point of view, better to order "turnkey".
We are all human and, unfortunately, not all of us - are decent. If the work is done by specialists of the company, which signed an agreement, you should not rely 100% on their integrity. Better to look into this matter carefully. Then it will be in place not only "attend", but also expertly manage the entire process.
As an example - some indicative prices for sets of panel houses (RUR / m 2):
- storey - from 9 000 to 10 000.
- duplex - 8 700 to 9,500.
- with a loft - from 8000 to 9500.
With the assembly in place - about 15 000 - 17 000 rubles. The cost depends on the specific project (the amount of work + complexity).
Frame and framework model is more suitable for self-assembly. Also, the first step is the hardware foundation. Mainly used lightweight belt. It's going to mortgage the crown (made of logs or lumber). It set the frame counter. The recommended distance between them -. 1 m This is dictated by optimum distribution of the load on the foundation. Mounting racks - braces, big nails.
Compound therebetween (upper and lower) - beams. For greater stability posed diagonal jib. If the walls are large, it is possible to put an additional horizontal.
After assembling the skeletons of the walls of preparing the skeleton of the roof. First - the rafters, then - lathing for the installation of insulation (usually a slab) and the roof. The latter should immediately and mount that in the event of inclement weather shelter place of work and set design elements. Then - the frame finish.
Conducted in parallel laying of utilities: sewer, water, gas and so on.
Construction cost is cheaper than switchboards, on average, by 15 percent.
1. One way or another, have to order a project. Consider yourself all can not even professional. It should be understood that in this process is always attended by representatives of different professions: builders, heating engineers, and many others. After all, in a modern house should be and heating, and water and gas, and phone, and so much more.
If the construction is a specialized organization, it carries out all activities. From design to delivery of the object. By the way, all negotiation with regulatory and other bodies (eg, energy, gas workers) - is also its concern. Customer from all of these procedures is relieved;
2. Increasing the timing of works (purchase of material + construction itself). Much depends on people: their number, the possibility of daily employment, skills in such matters. Therefore, it may take and 2 and 5 months;
3. Conduct competent connection parts. For example, board or beam length will be less than the length of the wall. So, you will have to step up. And how to do it?
Many people wonder how much will cost the construction frame holiday home. For example, a floor embodiment, with an extension and a loft, would cost approximately 450 000 (from place to delivery).
Keep in mind that the price is influenced not only design, but also materials that are used. Including - thermal insulation, waterproofing.
Step by step instructions of building a frame house
In our country, until recently, were built mostly from home log house, brick or concrete, but now is the time of new technologies, and in this segment appeared frame construction. It has not yet been mastered at full capacity, so we would like to look in detail at how the construction of a frame house with his own hands with steps, which is contained in the article. The instruction itself consists of 4 stages:
- installation of the foundation;
- assembly of the frame;
- walling and heat insulation work;
The main advantage of this design lies in the rapid construction without the involvement of special lifting equipment. Cheap skeletal structure are introduced into operation in one season, but this rate is in any case does not impair the comfort and heat retention, and here are the parameters are not worse than those of wooden or stone houses. Now we offer to disassemble all the stages of construction separately.
Using a wooden material presupposes portion without excess moisture. Place in the construction site should be well ventilated and be dry enough so that the wood does not rot. Drawings of the design documentation required to be drawn up taking into account the binding to the terrain, because only such scruples can guarantee long-lasting operation of the home without any problems and repair.
To make a qualitative foundation is possible only after conducting geological analysis of soil, while the house is being built according to the calculation of operational loads.
The developer must follow a project created by experts in the field. Written documentation should also be agreed by authorized officials of different services, which are subject to change and / or supplement. At the initial stage of the step by step instructions allows independent preparation of the sketch, but the next step is to select the appropriate standard project or be tailor made to suit personal preferences and wishes, but in this and in another case it is necessary to make a layout of all communications and make the plan of engineering systems.
An example of conceptual model project
We draw your attention to the fact that standard designs usually cost less and allow the individual to realize their own ideas.
Construction of a frame house, as well as any residential buildings, provides for the introduction of the project all the utilities. According to the instructions, in sequence laid communication, and must start with the foundation. All the technological holes for communication systems needs to be done at the time of pouring to pour foundations after did not have to deal with difficult drilling.
The electrical system consists of a switchboard, wiring, sockets and ground. The distance between the points under the outlet must be less than 4 m. Next to the water source outlet installed with caps. The ventilation system includes a duct with openings. Should I remind you that the correct routing of pipes and wires depends on ease of access and use of cranes, switches, as well as the functioning of the sewage and drainage system?
Construction technology involves the installation of a frame house melkozaglublennogo strip foundation, columnar or block-concrete foundation. Increase the strength of the foundations by means of valves and piping monolithic. For the frame construction rather small base that can easily withstand small loads. The most effective type of foundation for a frame house - screw piles. This foundation does not require large amounts of materials, which reduces the cost of the construction budget.
Embodiments grillage devices for screw piles
By laying the foundation necessary dig a trench or drill wells for piles, and then poured sand bed. Before you begin pouring concrete, you need to make the formwork and reinforcement bars set. Strip foundation in the process of pouring necessarily compacted. Step by step guide states that for the construction of a frame house in the liquid concrete bases every 2 m vertical studs put two feet in length. Surface grillage necessarily dub the same cement mortar.
Seven days after the work on concrete is poured over the entire surface of the substrate is placed waistrail of wooden beams cross section 15h15sm. Wood carefully pretreated antiseptic, and across the bottom paving two layers of roofing material, acting in waterproofing. Bruce can be fixed with anchor bolts or foundation bolts. If bolts are used, then they need to drill under the technological holes up to 10 cm in depth. In length and arranged at the corners of the compound and fixed with nails.
Driving home sill
When all floor joists (board 50h150 mm) wood beams stacked and bonded to each other and to the foundation, the grooves are formed and placed. The upper part lag shall be verified horizontally and across the bottom beams nailed, which will serve as the basis for the sub-floor apparatus to which the stapler stitched vapor barrier membrane material. In the gaps between the logs need to extrude insulation (mineral wool or foam). From above plank boards board (40h15 mm).
Scheme floor device
Now you can take the following steps, which will be discussed further.
When mounting frame house with his own hands, the developers of the technology of the title understand that the main element of the construction - the frame, and that the whole structure is held on it. The skeleton is composed of upright posts fixed by means of crossbars and horizontal strapping. As before, here the entire construction process is carried out in stages. In the presence of which would require the welder and certain skills as a material used wood or metal profile, for mounting. If you decide to create a frame made of wood, it is recommended to select hardwoods, such as larch or oak is the most popular. Rack height shall correspond to the conditions of the room. Connect the rack tongue and groove on the principle of the sill. After fitting there should be no gaps.
Elements of the wall
Depending on what kind of load will act on the bearing support, plan the distance between the posts and their caliber, and have them picked up by the dimensions of the encasing material. Typically racks sectional view taken 150h50 mm in apertures 150h50mm give dual beams. The most popular step counters - 600 mm (allows you to install a heater "in tension" for dense filling of the wall). For connecting struts with lower strapping temporary bracing used, making the construction becomes necessary rigidity.
Driving device frame corners
Now, step by step guide led us to install the top piping, which is carried out after the installation of the vertical beam. Fixing occurs by means of the same slots that hold the lower beam. The top fastening to the posts done by two nails, which should enter into the material by at least 10 cm. The final consolidation of the frame is carried out regular mowing, set to replace the removed temporary. Read more about this in the article "The top and bottom rail frame house". Also, be sure to check with the device the most important components of a frame house.
The outer walls of the house sheathe siding under a log, wood paneling, plastic siding, as wish the owner of the house. Warming is better done with mineral wool. It reliably and inexpensively solve the problem of warming of houses, which makes the frame construction even more profitable and in demand. If you plan to live here all year round, then try to trim the thermal insulation with a 15 cm thick, and more. For greater efficiency over racks of kontrobreshetku tamp rod 50x50 mm (8) and place the heater (7) the "second layer" - so you avoid possible thermal bridges and make home truly energy efficient. Read more about the device wall cake, as well as the general warming of the frame house.
Driving insulation wall framing
The material is pressed into all gaps between the beams, to remove voids. To protect the wood from moisture helps waterproofing film, which is attached on top of the heater to the rack, and only then stuffed rack lath for ventfasada, which will be hidden under the outer cladding. The inside wall cladding is suitable OSP or gipsovolokna plate.
The ceiling is attached to the joists, which in turn are fixed slots or steel brackets on a bar top trim. Where interior walls are installed, you must install the support rails, in a place which is nailed wooden ceiling panel.
The scheme of attic floor insulation
On top of the shield to be stacked and vapor membrane must overlap of beams, which is placed flush with the mineral wool, polystyrene, etc. Insulation vapor barrier is closed and the flooring planks on top of it. Read more about the insulation of attic floor.
This is how we gradually got to the roof installation. The roof weighs a lot, so it must rely on ready-made walls without finishing. Before you begin, determine the degree of the slope, the number of rays, the type of roof cladding, roof system construction.
The dependence of the slope of the material used
Roof with a complex shape is attractive, but it is difficult to implement, so not cheap. The most common dual structure, allowing to equip the attic or loft space. Here you need to install only one horse, endy and nonexistent, which prevents the accumulation of rainfall and leakage. To the snow did not stay on the roof, plan its slope more than 28º but not more than 50º, otherwise increase the wind loading.
The cross-section trusses determined according placing insulation material therebetween, an average of 100 - 150 mm. It is best to take the board 150h50mm caliber and length of 6 m. The two boards have to knock down in the form of the letter A, and then raise them up and determine the angle, making sure that overhangs go beyond the level of the walls is 30-50 cm. Now the board can be assembled using bolts, and we get a semblance of the rafters.
The design of gable roof truss system
Where are the support, one-third the height of the triangular cutouts provide. As mauerlat here is the top frame rail. For preparing the samples create rafters for the rest of the roof, not forgetting a step in the 700 - 800 mm. Rafters on the ridge placed on the gable and have them continue to install other components. From decorative cladding it depends what will be a crate.
Step by step guide ends during installation of the roof lining. You can choose soft tile, decking and metal roofing. With all these materials easy to operate, they are affordable and have a decent view. After tiling will only have to install gutters and drainage system, which will be responsible for the removal of sediment off-site.
But for you a unique film - a detailed step by step instructions on the construction of a frame house from scratch. Thank!)
Now that you know how to build a frame house with his own hands, so that the construction was solid and warm. If you do not ignore the rules of construction and assembly technology, you will become the proud owner of your own home, which you can only dream of.
Thank you! But why you do not write about UWB? It is the most convenient for the foundation frame house, especially if you build energy-efficient house. The foundation takes over the part of the other work required for other types of foundation: you do not need radiators on the first floor. because floor heating held in UWB, do not need any rough finish and floor covering can be laid directly on the plate, there is no need to enclose the high porch.