- 1 How to use a leveling instrument? Methods of Use leveling
- 2 How to work with the leveling instrument: instruction manual, apparatus, and reviews
- 3 How to use the leveling instrument
How to use a leveling instrument? Methods of Use leveling
Dear users of the portal SNP.BY, this article describes the simple ways to use leveling as well as their types. All wishing to acquire full skills levels, you must read the textbooks on geodesy, for those who want to understand how to work with a leveling instrument, for domestic use, enough descriptions in this article. The question "how to use optical levels" will be partially closed.
Level - a tool to determine the height difference.
Measurements have geometry, trigonometry. In simple terms, the work performed by the levels, there are different, it is the construction of topographic maps, determination of height differences, on the planes of the building structure, site for further landscape alterations and sanitation organization, determining the height of various surfaces with the removal of elevations.
classic "optical level"Time-tested, reliable and accurate. The entire Soviet Union obmeryan optical levels, inside and out. For this titanic piece of work, optical level did not fail, it is reliable, it does not need batteries. The principle is simple. We look through the eyepiece, see the mark on the dipstick (write it), transfer the rail, looking through the eyepiece, see other mark (again write) is subtracted from the first mark of the second, and get the difference in height. Here it is necessary a minimum knowledge of mathematics, geometry, great care, good vision. More work with optical Levels necessarily need a partner who will keep the line. Each optical levels talmut supplied with a description and instructions for setting up, to describe it in detail here does not make sense, unless in a nutshell.
- Put the rack with bolted thereto levels, approximately vertically.
- The three biggest bolts at the base of the device, is adjustable horizontally. Remove them so that the air bubble (you find it on any) was always at the center, and when rotated 380 degrees, the position of the bubble persisted. It is most important.
- If everything is configured correctly, the measurement can be carried out (in some older models of leveling, inverted image).
More advanced and accurate device, it is "laser level" or "laser level". In fact, the device is similar to a normal level, but instead of air bubbles in water float float with a laser pointer. The float submerged in water, relative to earth, is always in a horizontal position, the angle at which it will not turn. It turns out that at the time of use, you just need to put a laser level vertically, turn it to fix the initial position of the luminous point (resting places of the laser beam with the surface of the body), and then to dance already from this point by turning the leveling in the desired direction, and measuring out the usual line elevation changes.
In skilled hands, Lasers you can measure and make all kinds of surveying available with other leveling. Moreover, a work time required, will be considerably less, since the installation of the laser leveling requires little time. Another plus lasers is that if the string up, all the work can be done alone.
Minus Lasers, This attachment to the power source, batteries, accumulators, solar batteries. If you shake the device, it is possible to knock calibration laser pointer is shifted with respect to the float, which leads to errors, rising in the distance.
In case you do not have a full-fledged leveling. The easiest level is "level9raquo ;, they are able to use almost all based on the principle of terrestrial gravity, the air is lighter than water, below water, air from the top, i.e. at a level, glass tube filled with water, there is a small air bubble that in the medium tends upwards, completely horizontal tube arrangement, the bubble is always in the middle. Besides that they are very convenient to look for local irregularities on walls, ceilings, floors, levels can be used in a small area to determine the height differences.
Of course, mapping levels of conductivity, is not easy and accurate, as you need a lot of time, perhaps, it is the main drawback of this device. but ordinary level It is very simple and it is not afraid of falling dirt, fumbling. Another significant plus in the direction of the normal level is relatively low price
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How to work with the leveling instrument: instruction manual, apparatus, and reviews
Building tools for gauging has undergone significant changes in recent years. Traditional Reiki levels and fade into the background, giving way to a more functional and technologically advanced electronic counterparts. Optical and laser instruments for determining the position of construction projects deliver results of high precision, while and performing complex mathematical calculations based on the data obtained. And it is quite logical that as the complexity of the instrument raises questions about how to work with a leveling instrument? Educational program for beginners, presented below, will develop the basic rules for the use of such devices. Despite their physical ergonomics, operation process involves performing a series of procedures by which the just and will depend on the correctness of the result.
Leveling optical apparatus
The instrument is based generates tribrach - a metal ring, the position of which is fixed with supports three control elements. Leveling screws allow optimal positioning on the construction site, while minimizing the risks of deviations. Also the device includes a horizontal limb, telescope, levels of cylindrical shape and a compensator in the form of a magnetic or air damper. How to work with a leveling instrument of this type? Originally performed by setting the above-mentioned screws, and the measurement is carried out through the telescope. Depending on the configuration, the optical device may have a set of multiple lenses that perform measurements in different conditions. For correction device for definition of the head with optics also provides for adjusting screws that reduce the risk of large errors. With such a display can determine the height of the structure, the difference in level positions of the individual objects locking angles and t. D.
Such models are not part of the telescope, which saves the user from determining the geometric parameters independent object. Working basis is a laser emitter, projecting the beam at the target area. The design also provides for regulating accessories, but in this case, the tolerance of error is eliminated, since most models regardless of the position can automatically adjust the angle of the beam relative to the horizontal direction.
How does laser level? Prepared for operations is guided optics instrument on the subject, resulting in a surface reflects the point at which we can estimate the height and make measurement. Such equipment is good because it reduces the risk of tolerance errors due to human factors. Also, its advantages include a wide range of options related to the processing of the received data.
Features rotary models
It is the most technologically advanced equipment designed to perform marking on site. A key feature of these models is the presence of a rotating detector, which contains two lasers. They can travel at speeds of the order of 600 rev. / Min., By projecting a beam through 360 °. How to deal with leveling rotary type? the treatment of such devices equipment generally corresponds to the typical laser devices, and the only difference lies in the organization of the final mark. That is, if the beam in conventional models provides information about one characteristic, then it needs to be moved, the rotary machinery from one position allows for complex calculations. This approach is particularly effective when the installation of windows, performing surface finishing and in other operations where it is required to obtain data on the situation of different objects within the same room or building site. But in open areas may occur limitations associated with long distances to the target object.
General recommendations for the use of instruments
Before proceeding to the main working activities, should consider measures to ensure the safety of the appliance. First of all housing must be protected against water, dirt, dust and physical shock. As a rule, the structure has a layered construction leveling pylevlagozaschitnuyu insulation, but this may not be enough. For example, heavy rain can not be used without additional shell even pattern with higher protection class IP54. The same applies to the threat of direct sunlight. A temporary overheating of equipment, may not bring it down, but it will affect the measurement accuracy.
How to work with levels, if the street is cold or hot weather and surface cover does not help? Initially should make sure that the machine is in principle suitable for use at a particular temperature range. Typically, the model of large manufacturers may be used with an average range of -10 to 25 ° C. But in this case it is necessary to adhere to certain rules of operation. For example, optical model sensitive to temperature changes. After performing the measurement device should be put in the warm room and warm in a complete case for 30 minutes.
To ensure the correct position of the device, use a tripod. Without it, you can get in a room with a flat base, but when it comes to work at the construction site on the bare ground, the adjustable excess inventory will not. But also in the room without special carrier to operate the instrument will be uncomfortable. For such purposes, provides ergonomic holders. They can be fastened to the walls, floor coverings and even the ceiling.
And require a special rake. Its scale will allow on the target mark of division, which will be recorded and the required readings. How to deal with leveling and rail? Traditional methods require that two people be involved in the process - one directly responsible for the recording of data, and the second holds the rail. However, the latest models of laser electronic devices to automatically process the data, taking into account the special racks barcodes. In this case, the user is required only to activate the corresponding function and set the position of the scale correctly.
Operation of optical devices
As already mentioned, the work begins with the configuration of the telescope. The main task at this stage - to achieve ultimate image of the object definition. Adjustment is made by means of screws, and the correctness of the estimated mean of the eyepiece.
Further work, unlike laser models performed together. One worker sets perpendicular to the ground rail, and the second takes readings using the image optical leveling. How not reduced to work to and during the operation of data correctness with him? Firstly, a lot will depend on the reliability of the device status. Therefore, special attention was initially paid to the stability of the legs fixing. Secondly, professional surveyors use the spirit level. This device with a bubble level, due to which corrected and the tripod position, and the position of leveling. When the device is ready for operation, the tube is induced on sight dividing rail. Then it remains only to fix the indications in the technical journal.
How to work with laser leveling instrument type?
The device also is fixed by a tripod or special holders. To ensure a tight installation, you can start working arrangements. After pressing a special button on the target surface is applied the beam. The lines may be projected on a horizontal or vertical plane, and some models and also provide for the possibility of cross-radiation. After that, the device automatically takes readings from the prepared rack with divisions. If you plan on large marking distances, can not do without a special receiver, which is a separate fix the position of the beam. How to learn to work levels, supplemented with such a device? Basic operation also takes automation. The operator need only monitor the readings on the receiver display, which can fix the position of the points at distances of the order of 80-100 m. At the moment of registration of the beam unit will give a corresponding signal, and displays the received information, which are recorded in the log.
Maintenance of the appliance
The most demanding of the optical device care. Therefore, after each application must wipe the eyepiece lenses and the surface of the telescope. The slightest contamination can affect the accuracy of the data reflection. For example, the company "Kondtrol9raquo; has a wide range of devices of this type, we also recommend regularly and calibrated. The feedback to this frequent criticism products, which noted that the definition does not work on the leveling "Sokia9raquo ;. The causes of image degradation models in the series can be dusty and optics, and structural violations. For example, if the same lens were set loose. In this case, you should perform calibration procedure using a white sheet of paper. It is located at a certain distance in advance near the scribe rails. Correction of optical equipment is made as long as the measurement results do not coincide with known factual data.
Reviews on the models of the optical type
The primary audience of users of such leveling - professional builders and surveyors, to clearly understand the principles of the workflow. According to them, the optical device provided proper use can ensure accuracy with an error of 0.2 mm. But their main advantage is the flexibility of the organization of measurement procedures. The operator can in the course of the procedure to make fine adjustment depending on the operating conditions. For example, how to operate the leveling instrument on a construction site, or if the weather prevents interference is taking place of another kind? It is a manual process, adjusting the adjustment to certain circumstances in such situations would be more profitable. The user can shift the unit, not being distracted by the software configuration, quickly capturing data.
The owners of such equipment to the fore put convenience, high-speed data processing and multi-functionality. How to deal with this type of leveling instrument beginner? Just - just need to place the device in an optimal measurement point and run a computer program. Further readings will be automatically removed from the measuring point. Moreover, such devices are inexperienced and home craftsmen and professionals, who are attracted by the presence of additional options - for example, the possibility of complex calculations and production of the given functions.
The arrival of a new generation of measuring equipment, of course, has changed the very principle of the organization of the scoring process. In many ways, the innovation has facilitated the task of builders, engineers and surveyors, but among laymen is quite logical questions arise about how to use the leveling instrument? Features of operation of optical and laser devices are associated with a high degree of responsibility of preparatory activities. On the user goes to a whole range of regulatory operations and the setting depends precision measurement results. This is a lesser degree relates to laser model, therefore in the first place is recommended for home use. Optical same device are complex, not only in plan configuration but also directly at the stage of the working process.
How to use the leveling instrument
How to use the leveling instrument
Optical level represents a horizontal circle customizable special lifting screw and is fixed at the top of the telescope device. Before you get started with it, surveyor engineer fixes it on a tripod, centered over the reference point and the results in a completely horizontal position.
The device is ready for operation when the circular level vial is at the center and does not move when turning the device in different directions.
When shooting, you can rely on the Baltic coordinate system, if nearby there is a frame (a point with known heights above sea level), otherwise, is set relative to the system and the reference point is taken either.
To determine the horizon tool to the reference point is set geodesic rack, which plotted graphically and in a numerical scale. Engineer surveyor on crosshairs grids in the telescope taken mark and a mark added to the reference point. So is the instrument horizon.
To determine the required marks and other unknown points geodesic rake set sequentially to each of them. The obtained readings are subtracted from the tool horizon, the results obtained are stamped and the desired points.
In order that would not do the extra work to the place of each point is determined climber. It actually get written or height, or mounted on the crossbar height equal to the design.
According elevations may carry out further work, whether concreting columns, dumping of inert material to the site design marks or pouring of a concrete mixture.
It is not allowed to clean up level with the working position until the end of all the necessary surveying. Otherwise, installation reinstalling the device in the working position is repeated for the above algorithm and take some additional time.
There are situations when one of the required points available for visual take readings on the rod. In this case, you must perform the migration, and reinstall the device to another location, thus the device will change the horizon.
Principle of operation Laser leveling is almost identical to the optical instrument. The only difference lies in the fact that the laser beam is focused on a geodesic rail and look out for the indication is no longer necessary through the eyepiece.