- 1 Build your home: how to put a fireplace with his hands
- 2 How to fold a fireplace made of bricks with their hands. The requirements to quality bricks. Preparation of the base. Laying firebox and the furnace roof. lining
- 3 How to fold the fireplace itself
Build your home: how to put a fireplace with his hands
Create a real comfort in a country house, the cottage to give personality to make unique holiday evening by the open fire, fireplace clasped his hands, by the forces of any real man. How to fold a fireplace with his hands - we try to tell you step by step to show the availability of the process.
In today's world, a country house in the fireplace, as the heating source, need not feel, though the hearth with live fire is desired and exclusive "izyuminkoy9raquo; any interior. Pleasure is not cheap, but the main thing - desire. Since he still helps to warm cool summer or autumn evenings, dry room after the rain, the most appropriate fireplaces in country houses and cottages, where they tend to decorate the living room.
His device is much simpler than that of the furnace, so you can put a small center, if you know exactly how to put a fireplace with his hands in the cottage.
Probably everyone in my life there have been instances when a friend or friends built fireplaces instead of the desired comfort and warmth spewed smoke into the room, spitting sparks, and the fireplace was "ukrashen9raquo; soot. Let's learn to avoid the mistakes in the construction of the fireplace that lead to such consequences.
To fire, folded his hands, organically and beautifully blended into the interior of a country house or cottage, gave the expected amount of heat and are not smoked, it is necessary to do some calculations. First, determine what will be the fire: Attached to the wall or free-standing (considered embedded in the wall will not, as such need to build fireplaces in the process of building a country house). Then you need to determine how to add a fireplace with his hands, and where it is more convenient to bring a stack (easier if a country house or bungalow).
There are standard calculations for the size of the fireplace room and 20m2 up to 70m3, if it is a little more or a little less, they are also suitable. According to the dimensions of the fireplace formulas rigidly attached to the meter room. This binding is expressed in ratios. Thus, the area of the portal (the front of) fire equals 1/50 of the area of the room where the fireplace is built. Tabs on the sides of the portal (site) to make at least 20 cm possible. The projection of the podium (pad before the furnace) is not less than 50 cm, and predtopochny sheet must provide protection even floor 30 centimeters (it can not be laid, if the floor is tiled by the fire).
Since the heat of the fireplace depends not only on the size of the furnace, but also on the angle at which lined the back wall, it is necessary to take into account these parameters. Optimum furnace hearth area amounts to 0.7 times the area of the portal. The height of the flue openings is always slightly less than its width (approximately 2/3), and the firebox depth should be slightly more than half its height. When the furnace is reduced too deep heat of the fireplace, and a small depth into the room will get a smoke.
The slope of the rear wall is necessary to start with about one third of its height and bring to 22 degrees, wherein the side walls may be slightly turned outwards and have an angle of inclination of 45 to 60 degrees.
Flow cross-section of the chimney flue is also dependent on the size of the furnace and, as a rule, is 10-12 times less than the area of the furnace (approximately 14h27 cm for a small fireplace), otherwise there is a risk to get in the fireplace condensate.
The average height of the chimney of the fireplace must be sufficient for discharging combustion gases from, but not too high, otherwise strong pull will promote rapid combustion of firewood and reduce the amount of heat generated. Optimum chimney height of 5 to 10 meters.
There are some nuances in the choice of a place for the fireplace. Thus, the corner fireplace contributes to a better room heating, and also has a winning design in comparison with the classic near-wall. Fireplace is usually placed on the supporting wall opposite the entrance, but on the contrary it is better not windows positioned as a high probability of occurrence of drafts.
Materials and tools for the construction of the fireplace
Before you fold the fireplace with his hands in a country house, you need to purchase certain materials and tools. And the need to acquire the material quality, as the quality of the fire, folded his hands, will depend on this.
- boards for planking;
- broken or crushed stone;
- roofing felt or film for waterproofing.
- bricks (solid brick red exterior walls and the chimney, which is not lower than grade M200, buy one party that did not differ in quality and color);
- Fireclay refractory brick or quartz (for firebox). Total bricks can count after calculating poryadovkoy;
- Sand (grain to 1.5 mm);
- clay furnace;
Also need metal parts of the fireplace damper and grate. Must-have tool for cutting bricks.
Needs to be done step by step drawing laying bricks so-called "Poryadovku9raquo ;, without which it is impossible to correctly fold the fireplace with his hands. You can buy the book version and can be downloaded from the Internet. This will help not only to calculate the number of bricks, but do not get lost in the course of laying (which after each series lined his cross out of the scheme).
After the preparation step is made, it is possible to start the practical part.
fireplace construction technology
If the foundation is in the house of the tape, then before the fireplace with his hands folded, should mark a place in it, remove the floor and build a separate base. It is best if the foundation of the fireplace that you put your hands, is not associated with the foundation of the house.
Pit dug to a depth of 60 cm to a meter (depending on the size of the flue-gas tube, the higher it is, the solid foundation). The width of the base should exceed the size of the base of the fireplace at the 15-20 cm. The bottom of the pit is filled with gravel (5 cm) which thoroughly tamped, after which the formwork is set not to control the 10 cm to the floor level (waterproofing and the first two rows of bricks to be laid below floor level). It is possible to make the foundation of rubble and sand-cement mortar (3: 1). The upper layer solution is leveled, covered film and left for a week for curing.
At this time, it is prepared bricks and clay mixture preparation. Bricks must be completely smooth ends for which they can be sanded. Preparation clay mixture is as follows: sand is sieved and mixed with clay in a ratio of 1: 2. Water is added with constant stirring, until the mixture begins to slide off the blade evenly. Ready solution can be left for a few days for soaking (stirring occasionally).
With the finished foundation shuttering is removed, stack two layers of conventional bricks, then the two layers of roofing material (waterproofing), on top of which is placed a solid row of refractory bricks and covered with a layer of a clay solution.
Red brick before laying must be lowered for a few minutes in water that it does not pick up moisture from the solution.
Lower rows can be placed upon the slurry (like the pipe projecting above the roof). The rest of the masonry is executed clay-sand mortar. During the laying of the third row of the floor lay the 2 metal rods, which will be attached fender. Masonry firebox start from about the fifth row. Chimney self-fulfillment does not necessarily make the ash pan. the furnace chamber must be lined with refractory brick necessarily. Note that the red and chamotte bricks react differently to the heat, however, while their use, between the refractory insert and the housing of the fireplace make dry joint (2-3 mm) without mortar to allow free expansion of the material without overheating the furnace and fireplace housing .
Further masonry is performed in accordance with poryadovkoy. Bricks carefully wiped by cloth excess solution seams embroider immediately to therein were not formed slit through which cold air may enter into the fireplace and the fireplace during operation loose connection can cause destruction of the walls of the high temperature.
Particular attention should be given to laying floors above the combustion chamber, which is better to lay a brick with a special removable formwork. Above the firebox smoke chamber is formed, which is separated from the firebox special protrusion ( "zubom9raquo;) to prevent entry into the room of smoke and soot. Further laid chimney (need to calibrate each row level, the pipe must be strictly vertical).
That's the whole process, then finished the fireplace can be finished to your liking.
How to fold a fireplace made of bricks with their hands. The requirements to quality bricks. Preparation of the base. Laying firebox and the furnace roof. lining
Even a person who is rather far from the building, if necessary, will be able, having the detailed instructions to deal with masonry fireplace or stove simple form. It is only important to know what tools and materials are used in this case, how and from which, a solution for masonry and a brick building used in the furnace case. Get to work without an understanding of the primary things just does not make sense.
Photos of the fireplace in the house
The centuries-old practice of furnace construction, in fact, still has not undergone revolutionary changes, and, like many years ago, stoves and fireplaces put out full-bodied red brick, which is produced from clay.
Red brick building
Such a material used for the outer, visible part of the furnace or fireplace and as far as the front, paying particular attention to its quality.
But the work clutch inner (furnace) using lead fireclay refractory building material or quartz. Perforated brick lining is only suitable for laying ogolovochnoy of the tube or liner itself. Also can be used for facing double silicate brick M 150.
When purchasing building materials should pay attention to the following parameters:
- At first, do not take the brick mark is lower than the M200. Material above this mark will be guaranteed to possess the necessary strength (not less than 200 kg / cm 2) and appropriate appearance.
- Secondly, buy at once all the necessary quantity of the same batch. Otherwise, it is possible to obtain a material with different characteristics.
- Thirdly, evaluate product appearance: color, no inclusions, cracks and chips.
If you are thinking about how to make a fireplace made of bricks with his own hands, start with a study of the detailed scheme of masonry - poryadovkoy. Because without a newbie will not cope, in any case, do not neglect poryadovkoy (see also the article Barbecue of bricks with his own hands: build wisely).
EXAMPLE fireplace poryadovkoy
To the fireplace is not destroyed, it is necessary to build a foundation. This will ensure the stability of the structure and not allow it to be destroyed (Learn also how to build a corner fireplace made of bricks with their hands).
Note! Build the foundation necessary only if the overlap in your house is not made of concrete slabs.
Another important point: Do not mess with the base of the fireplace foundation home.
Instructions for installation of foundations:
- To begin, it will be necessary to dig a pit depth of about 60 cm, while it must be formed below the projection of the fireplace 10-15 cm.
- Thereafter, at the bottom of the excavation necessary to fill gravel layer and tightly compacted it.
- The following is set timbering.
Note! Formwork height should be about 6 cm below the floor.
Dug pit Formwork
- It remains only to stack layers into the mold and crushed stone fill it all the cement-sand mortar creamy consistency.
Tip! A solution for this purpose is made from cement and sand in the ratio 1: 3.
- When the base is ready, Smooth out the top of it and cover with plastic wrap. The substrate should dry.
Tip! To base has evaporated well have to wait at least 7 days.
With poryadovkoy learn how to make the fireplace of brick house. It shows in detail, in what position should be laid or that brick. Painted each row, and it allows you to not get lost in the process - you just have to tag stacked rows corresponding number scheme.
- Before performing the clutch, the base need to hide two layers of waterproofing.
- Followed by stacking a number of ground - that it turned out above the finished floor, brick in it is placed on the edge.
The device number of ground
Note! All subsequent rows are handled differently - brick is laid flat. To grip surface brick and mortar was better brick masonry before soaked in water for just a few minutes.
Putting 2-3 rows of brick, masonry firebox to pass, that is, use a special refractory brick building. It has other than red brick, parameters expansion during heating.
Note! If you run masonry shell fire from the usual red brick, it would lead to the complete destruction of the structure.
This technology allows you to avoid "dry joints": a fireplace hearth made of refractory bricks placed without reference to external walls indented by 3-4 millimeters.
The technology of "dry joints"
This ensures that between the furnace and the outer walls of the free expansion space and creates a thermal resistance zone, which prevents the body overheat.
Process for the fireplace masonry brick device
Normally, one of the most pressing issues in the masonry of the fireplace becomes the technology of masonry flue overlap. To apply for this metal arched bridges wrong - when heated, they will be strongly deformed and break the finished structure.
Therefore, arrange overlapping furnace - whether arched or straight horizontal - using special formwork in accordance with the views of the jumpers:
Formwork is manufactured in strict accordance with the contour of the lower arch of the furnace, so that it can be dismantled after drying the solution without damaging the masonry. This will help to support of the boards, the price of which depends on the thickness of the wood itself.
Specificity of the arch and a bow-shaped bridges in the method of their construction is the fact that they are placed on the formwork flat. When the device is canted overlapping bricks placed on edge.
In this case the joints between the bricks in the thickness range - from 3-4 mm to 25-30 mm below the top.
The end view of the arch
Begin to put the jumper on both sides at once. Central brick install the latest - it has to be positioned vertically, exactly the average set of lines. Higher demands are made not only to the accuracy of masonry arch of the fireplace, but also to the choice of building bricks. It should be as smooth and of high quality.
It is difficult the first time to achieve the aesthetic appearance of the fireplace:
- seams can be straight;
- Bricks may be slightly bulge or sink.
Therefore, most likely, it will be a question in front of you facing.
For this fit:
You can just plaster and paint the brick oven in accordance with the overall style of your home. Both methods allow to hide visible flaws and defects in your work.
We told you about how to make a fireplace made of bricks with their hands. We hope that our recommendations will be useful and will help you to build a fireplace in the house without outside help. As presented in this article you will find additional information on this topic.
How to fold the fireplace itself
Today fireplace had ceased to be vital to the construction of the heating and in most cases is the only original element of the interior. However, the fire can still be considered as an additional heat source, but only at a time until it is fired. This is what determines mainly its location - cottages and country houses in which to install a fireplace made in the great hall.
The device and the masonry fireplace a little easier than other foci (eg, ovens), and therefore a small fireplace is quite possible to perform independently. In this article we will explain how to add a fireplace to brick.
Selecting a location
Before you upload a fireplace, is to determine the order in which room you do it. The minimum area of the room needed for normal operation of the fireplace (no cold drafts or excessive heating) is 20 sq. meters. The ratio of the area of the opening of the firebox of the fireplace to the floor area should be in the range of from 1:70 to 1:80.
The most popular option - a device in the fire wall opening so that the rear wall left in the adjacent room.
If the fireplace spread around the partition of combustible materials, it is necessary to pay attention to compliance with fire safety standards, that is to perform the obligatory vertical fire butchering.
Functional types of fireplaces
The next stage - the selection of the drawings of the fireplace, which contains all numbers of a laying (if you are a beginner, choose a simplified version that does not require complicated fitting bricks or putting some of their angle).
Now it is necessary to prepare the necessary materials, to add a fireplace to:
- Installation of metal screen concrete and reinforcement for a separate device under the foundation fireplace;
- ceramic bricks good quality (red corpulent, without cracks and chips), either white refractory brick (Gzhel) or fireclay refractory brick;
- Clean out the door;
- valve furnace;
- stainless steel sheet on the screen.
foundation device for fireplaces and stoves
Since the fire must necessarily have its own foundation (not in contact with the foundation walls of the house), it is necessary to perform in advance, no later than two weeks before the masonry fireplace. This will allow the foundation (the material which can be not only concrete, but also crushed stone or brick) gain the necessary strength. For rubble, rubble concrete foundation brick or cement-lime mortar or stamp should be not lower than 50.
Depth of laying the foundation for the fireplace must not be less than the depth of soil freezing in your area, and the geometric dimensions of the foundation in terms of - in strict conformity with the shape of the fireplace with a view of the "allowance" of 50-100 mm from all sides.
Before you perform the foundation for the fireplace, make sure that the masonry chimney rests on the beams of the attic or roof system.
Laying the foundation for a fireplace Getting the foundation for the fireplace:
- Tearing pit required size, given that it will be either installed formwork (if the concrete foundation), or will be carried out works on laying bricks or large stones. The depth of the excavation should be about 10 cm greater than the depth of laying the foundation.
- Thoroughly tamped bottom of the pit.
- Go to sleep at the bottom of the pit small stones (gravel, crushed stone), about 10 cm thick and again tamped.
- Then, the process operation is dependent on the material from which the base will be executed:
- for concrete - formwork set, then drop into the pit reinforcement cages and concrete is poured;
- for rubble concrete - to fill the bottom of the pit solution (20-25 cm in height), recessed therein stones (with a gap of 3 cm), at intervals laid finer stone, then similarly perform the following series of foundation under the fireplace.
When the upper part of the foundation (the protruding above ground level) as formwork can use large stones laid on the foundation perimeter.
To the level of the finished floor foundation should not be up to 14-15 centimeters. The upper surface of the foundation under the fireplace must be strictly flat and horizontal.
Driving device fireplace
Making sure that the foundation solution is finally solidified, you can start laying the fireplace:
- On top of the foundation, apply a cement-sand mortar layer of about 2 cm and lay on a layer of bricks. Check the horizontal surface.
The initial stage of construction
- Apply a second layer of mortar and lay just one row of bricks.
- Place the top two layers of roofing material (as a waterproofing).
- formwork arrangement Prepare clay-cement-sand mortar for masonry fireplace: on one part cement (type 150) is taken 8-9 parts sand (by volume), all mixed, after which the mixture was carefully added to a clay slurry (slurry). Consumption of sand and clay (volume) is approximately the same. For laying jumpers cement and sand contents changes to 1: 5 or 1: 6. It is not recommended to increase the cement content of the solution, as the main binder component in it still protrudes clay.
- In strict accordance with the chosen scheme masonry, proceed laid out the fire. For its front surface brick select the same color, size, with straight corners and edges. Seams do strictly the same size, keeping them vertically and horizontally. Accord seams shape (concave or recessed) by means of grouting. Pay special attention to symmetrical laid out bridge over the opening of the fireplace (in some cases it is recommended to use the formwork).
Fireplace in a country house
- Since the folded fireplace itself the first time it can be difficult, and sometimes masonry does not look beautiful, the fireplace can be ready to plaster.
- Chimney should be spread on glinopeschanom solution followed by plastering. At the intersections with combustible floor elements performed fire-cutting.
In the following video footage you will see how the construction of the fire process:
Watch the following video, you will learn what are the features of air circulation in the fireplace, and how to optimize heating with a fireplace:
Recently, too, tormented by the question how to purchase a fireplace to give. I wish that was inexpensive and well fit into the interior. His choice was stopped on a block fireplace. A huge plus block the fireplace, it is not necessary to pay for the assembly - easy to assemble yourself. Ordered in the shop. Price was very favorable, especially when compared with the prices of stores that we have traveled in search, almost doubled. By the way, we were given a discount on the second order of 10%. We liked the fireplace, was very comfortable in the living room. It looks great. Recommended.